On May 29, the Classics Library Remembers the Fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire…

On a Tuesday May 29, 1453, a Turkish-Ottoman army of ca. 80,000 men, led by Sultan Mehmet II, captured the city of Constantinople after a 53-day siege, bringing to an end the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine empire. Rather than submit to the Sultan’s demand to surrender Constantinople, the emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos chose to die fighting in defense of the city and Christianity. Although the 7,000 defenders fought bravely, the city’s massive 5th c. CE walls, which had for a millennium proved impregnable to successive sieges, were no match for the Turkish cannons, and the 80,000-man Ottoman army overwhelmed the small defending force of Byzantines and their Italian allies. Once the emperor realized the city was lost, he threw off his imperial regalia and plunged into the midst of the fighting. His body was never found.

Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its founding by Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 330. There have been numerous studies on the fall of Constantinople, but, according to Mike Braunlin, one of the most accessible to English readers is Sir Steven Runciman’s The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 (Cambridge 1965). The quoted sections that follow are from this book. On a Monday May 28th, realizing the end was near, the emperor encouraged his small force by reminding them what they were fighting for: “To his Greek subjects he said that a man should always be ready to die either for his faith or his country or for his family or for his sovereign. Now his people must be prepared to die for all four causes. He spoke of the glories and high traditions of the great Imperial city. He spoke of the perfidy of the infidel Sultan who had provoked the war in order to destroy the True Faith and to put his false prophet into the seat of Christ. He urged them to remember that they were the descendants of the ancient heroes of Greece and Rome and to be worthy of their ancestors. For his part, he said, he was ready to die for his faith, his city, and his people” (p. 130).

That evening the last Christian service was held in the great church of Holy Wisdom, the Hagia Sophia, which had been the heart of Eastern Orthodox Christianity for a thousand years. Roman Catholics and Greek Orthodox put aside their bitter doctrinal differences: “Priests who held union with Rome to be a mortal sin now came to the altar to serve their Unionist brothers. The Cardinal was there, and beside him bishops who would never acknowledge his authority; and all the people came to make confession and take communion, not caring whether Orthodox or Catholic administered it. There were Italians and Catalans along with the Greeks. The golden mosaics, studded with the images of Christ and his saints and the emperors and empresses of Byzantium, glimmered in the light of a thousand lamps and candles; and beneath them for the last time the priests in their splendid vestments moved in the solemn rhythm of the Liturgy. At this moment there was union in the Church of Constantinople” (p. 131).

Hagia Sophia, a Christian church in Constantinople until 1453, now an Islamic mosque in Istanbul.

As is often stated, there are at least two sides to every story. The atrocities committed by Christian crusaders against Muslims and Jews, including women and children, will not be covered in this blog post, but should be recognized as well. And whereas to Christians it was a Fall; to Muslims it was a Conquest.

For western Europe, the Fall of Constantinople had perhaps one silver-lining in that there was an ensuing migration of Byzantine scholars, scientists, musicians, astronomers, writers, poets, scribes, architects, artists, grammarians in the period following the Fall which brought with it a revival of Greek and Roman studies that eventually led to the development of Renaissance humanism and science.

Representing more than 1,000 years in a blog post is clearly impossible, so the following will instead offer a few highlights.

 

JUSTINIAN I

Emperor Justinian I, detail from mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy.

During the reign of Justinian I (reign 527–565), the Empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries. Justinian was considered by many the greatest of the Byzantine emperors. Two of his accomplishments include the uniform rewriting of Roman law, contained in the Corpus Iuris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many countries, and the architectural masterpiece, the Hagia Sophia. The new law code gave the Church and Ruler the arguments to support the absolute right of the monarch with God’s approval, unbound by secular laws (legibus solutus) and answerable only to God.   Justinian’s wife Theodora was highly influential in the politics of the Empire which perhaps speaks to the relative high status of women, at least among the Byzantine aristocracy.

 

THEODORA

Theodora and her court, mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy.

The Nika revolt against Emperor Justinian during a week in 532 CE and Theodora’s pivotal council is famously narrated in Procopius’ History of the Wars (Ὑπὲρ τῶν πολέμων). I. 24. 32-38) and is here cited in toto.

“Οἱ δὲ ἀμφὶ τὸν βασιλέα ἐν βουλῇ ἦσαν, πότερα μένουσιν αὐτοῖς ἢ ταῖς ναυσὶν ἐς φυγὴν τρεπομένοις ἄμεινον ἔσται. καὶ λόγοι μὲν πολλοὶ ἐλέγοντο ἐς ἑκάτερα φέροντες. καὶ Θεοδώρα δὲ ἡ βασιλὶς ἔλεξε τοιάδε “Τὸ μὲν γυναῖκα ἐν ἀνδράσι μὴ χρῆναι τολμᾶν ἢ ἐν τοῖς ἀποκνοῦσι νεανιεύεσθαι, τὸν παρόντα οἶμαι καιρὸν ἥκιστα ἐφεῖναι διασκοπεῖσθαι εἴτε ταύτῃ εἴτε ἄλλῃ πη νομιστέον. οἷς γὰρ τὰ πράγματα ἐς κίνδυνον τὸν μέγιστον ἥκει, οὐκ ἄλλο οὐδὲν εἶναι δοκεῖ ἄριστον ἢ τὰ ἐν ποσὶν ὡς ἄριστα θέσθαι. ἡγοῦμαι δὲ τὴν φυγὴν ἔγωγε, εἴπερ ποτέ, καὶ νῦν, ἢν καὶ τὴν σωτηρίαν ἐπάγηται, ἀξύμφορον εἶναι. ἀνθρώπῳ μὲν γὰρ ἐς φῶς ἥκοντι τὸ μὴ οὐχὶ καὶ νεκρῷ γενέσθαι ἀδύνατον, τῷ δὲ βεβασιλευκότι 36τὸ φυγάδι εἶναι οὐκ ἀνεκτόν. μὴ γὰρ ἂν γενοίμην τῆς ἁλουργίδος ταύτης χωρίς, μηδ᾿ ἂν τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην βιῴην, ἐν ᾗ με δέσποιναν οἱ ἐντυχόντες οὐ προσεροῦσιν. εἰ μὲν οὖν σώζεσθαί σοι βουλομένῳ ἐστίν, ὦ βασιλεῦ, οὐδὲν τοῦτο πρᾶγμαχρήματα γάρ τε πολλὰ ἔστιν ἡμῖν, καὶ θάλασσα μὲν ἐκείνη, πλοῖα δὲ ταῦτα. σκόπει μέντοι μὴ διασωθέντι ξυμβήσεταί σοι ἥδιστα ἂν τῆς σωτηρίας τὸν θάνατον ἀνταλλάξασθαι. ἐμὲ γάρ τις καὶ παλαιὸς ἀρέσκει λόγος, ὡς καλὸν ἐντάφιον 38ἡ βασιλεία ἐστί.” τοσαῦτα τῆς βασιλίδος εἰπούσης, θάρσος τε τοῖς πᾶσιν ἐπεγένετο καὶ ἐς ἀλκὴν τραπόμενοι ἐν βουλῇ ἐποιοῦντο ᾗ ἂν ἀμύνεσθαι δυνατοὶ γένοιντο, ἤν τις ἐπ᾿ αὐτοὺς πολεμήσων ἴοι.”

“Now the emperor and his court were deliberating as to whether it would be better for them if they remained or if they took to flight in the ships. And many opinions were expressed favoring either course. And the Empress Theodora also spoke to the following effect: ‘As to the belief that a woman ought not to be daring among men or to assert herself boldly among those who are holding back from fear, I consider that the present crisis most certainly does not permit us to discuss whether the matter should be regarded in this or in some other way. For in the case of those whose interests have come into the greatest danger nothing else seems best except to settle the issue immediately before them in the best possible way. My opinion then is that the present time, above all others, is inopportune for flight, even though it bring safety. For while it is impossible for a man who has seen the light not also to die, for one who has been an emperor it is unendurable to be a fugitive. May I never be separated from this purple, and may I not live that day on which those who meet me shall not address me as mistress. If, now, it is your wish to save yourself, O Emperor, there is no difficulty. For we have much money, and there is the sea, here the boats. However consider whether it will not come about after you have been saved that you would gladly exchange that safety for death. For as for myself, I approve a certain ancient saying that royalty is a good burial-shroud.’ When the queen had spoken thus, all were filled with boldness, and, turning their thoughts towards resistance, they began to consider how they might be able to defend themselves if any hostile force should come against them.”

 

HYPATIA

The relative freedom of women in Byzantium may also be manifest in the figure of Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician Hypatia (born ca. 350–370; died 415 CE) who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, where she was the Head of the renowned Neoplatonic school in Alexandria until she was murdered in March 415 CE by a mob of Christian monks known as the parabalani. Ostensibly, the reason was political as one side accused her of siding with Orestes, the Roman prefect of Alexandria, who was feuding with Cyril, the bishop of Alexandria. However, the fact that she was an intelligent and influential woman and pagan no doubt played a significant role in her murder.

Gilded Mummy Portrait of a Woman, often referred to as Hypatia. From Εr-Rubayat, Egypt. Roman Period, about C.E. 160–170.

Fifth century church historian Socrates Scholasticus of Constantinople praised her (text available in Patrologia Graeca vol. 67 through Google Books http://patristica.net/graeca/).

“Ἦν τις γυνὴ ἐν τῇ Ἀλεξανδρείᾳ τοὔνομα Ὑπατία. Αὕτη
Θέωνος μὲν τοῦ φιλοσόφου θυγάτηρ ἦν, ἐπὶ τοσοῦτο δὲ
προὔβη παιδείας, ὡς ὑπερακοντίσαι τοὺς κατ’ αὐτὴν φιλοσό-
φους, τὴν δὲ Πλατωνικὴν ἀπὸ Πλωτίνου καταγομένην δια
τριβὴν διαδέξασθαι καὶ πάντα τὰ φιλόσοφα μαθήματα τοῖς
βουλομένοις ἐκτίθεσθαι. Διὸ καὶ οἱ πανταχόθεν φιλοσοφεῖν
βουλόμενοι συνέτρεχον παρ’ αὐτήν. Διὰ δὲ τὴν προσοῦ-
σαν αὐτῇ ἐκ τῆς παιδεύσεως σεμνὴν παρρησίαν καὶ τοῖς
ἄρχουσιν σωφρόνως εἰς πρόσωπον ἤρχετο, καὶ οὐκ ἦν τις
αἰσχύνη ἐν μέσῳ ἀνδρῶν παρεῖναι αὐτήν· πάντες γὰρ δι’
ὑπερβάλλουσαν σωφροσύνην πλέον αὐτὴν ᾐδοῦντο καὶ κατε-
πλήττοντο” (Socrates Scholastics. Historia Ecclesiastica 7.15).

“There was a woman at Alexandria named Hypatia, daughter of the philosopher Theon, who made such attainments in literature and science, as to far surpass all the philosophers of her own time. Having succeeded to the school of Plato and Plotinus, she explained the principles of philosophy to her auditors, many of whom came from a distance to receive her instructions. On account of the self-possession and ease of manner, which she had acquired in consequence of the cultivation of her mind, she not infrequently appeared in public in presence of the magistrates. Neither did she feel abashed in coming to an assembly of men. For all men on account of her extraordinary dignity and virtue admired her the more.”

The historian Hesychius from Alexandria referred to her as the greatest astronomer (the best in matters of astronomy) “μάλιστα εἰς τὰ περὶ ἀστρονομίας” (frag. 7. 1002).

The Egyptian Coptic bishop John of Nikiû (fl. 680-690) seemed less “impressed”:

“And in those days there appeared in Alexandria a female philosopher, a pagan named Hypatia, and she was devoted at all times to magic, astrolabes and instruments of music, and she beguiled many people through her Satanic wiles. And the governor of the city honored her exceedingly; for she had beguiled him through her magic. And he ceased attending church as had been his custom… And he not only did this, but he drew many believers to her, and he himself received the unbelievers at his house” (John of Nikiû’s Chronicle 1916, 84:87-88, Translation from the Ethiopic version, Text and Translation Society: https://archive.org/stream/JohnOfNikiuChronicle1916/John_of_Nikiu_Chronicle_1916_djvu.txt).

Socrates Scholasticus recounts her murder:

“ἐκ τοῦ δίφρου ἐκβαλόντες ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν,
ᾗ ἐπώνυμον Καισάριον, συνέλκουσιν,
ἀποδύσαντές τε τὴν ἐσθῆτα ὀστράκοις ἀνεῖλον, καὶ
μεληδὸν διασπάσαντες ἐπὶ τὸν καλούμενον Κιναρῶνα
τὰ μέλη συνάραντες πυρὶ κατανήλωσαν”
(Socrates Scholasticus. Historia Ecclesiastica, book 7 chapter 15).

“They dragged her into a nearby church, known as the Caesarion, where they stripped her naked and murdered her using ostraka. They tore her body into pieces and dragged her mangled limbs through the town to a place called Cinarion, where they set them on fire.”

 

 MYSTRAS

The Byzantine town Mystras or Mistras (Greek Μυστρᾶς/Μιστρᾶς) was the capital of the Byzantine Despotate of Morea during the 14th and 15th centuries. The remains of its many splendid churches are located on Mt. Taygetos near ancient Sparta.  While an undergraduate, visiting Mystras on top of Taygetos during a spectacular thunder and lightning storm added a mystical feeling to its now rather ghost-like but still impressive appearance. The Peribleptos Monastery houses some remarkable frescoes from the mid to late 14th century (seen in the image below). Interestingly, devotion to Virgin Mary appears to have been an iconic focus at Mystras. Mystras can also lay claim to being the last bastion of Byzantine scholarship; the Neoplatonist philosopher Georgius Gemistos (Plethon) lived there until his death in 1452. He reintroduced Plato’s ideas to Western Europe during the 1438–1439 Council of Florence and in the process is thought to have heralded the Italian humanist renaissance. He is believed to have influenced Cosimo de’ Medici to found the new Academy (Accademia Platonica), at which Marsilio Ficino translated all of Plato’s works into Latin.

 

THE SUDA

The Suda or Souda (Byzantine Greek Σοῦδα “fortress”, Latin Suidae Lexicon) with the alternate name Suidas stemming from an error made by Greek scholar Eustathius who mistook the title for the author’s name, is an extensive 10th-century lexical encyclopaedia of c. 30,000 entries concerning the Mediterranean world (http://www.stoa.org/sol/). Many of the entries draw on ancient sources that have since been lost and derived from medieval Christian compilers. It is an invaluable source for ancient and Byzantine lexicography, history and life, although the reliability of some of its ancient entries has been called into question such as the biographical information about an alleged husband and daughter of the ancient Greek poet Sappho.  If we are to trust the Suda (s.v. Σαπφώ),

ἐγαμήθη δὲ ἀνδρὶ Κερκύλᾳ πλουσιωτάτῳ, ὁρμωμένῳ ἀπὸ Ἄνδρου, καὶ θυγατέρα ἐποιήσατο ἐξ αὐτοῦ, ἣ Κλεὶς ὠνομάσθη.

her husband’s name was “Kerkylas from the Isle of Andros” which would be the equivalent of  “Penis from the Isle of Man,” a reference which most likely stems from the many comedies about Sappho, popular already in antiquity, and the reference to a “daughter” Kleϊs (Sappho 98bV) may simply refer to a young woman, more or less the equivalent of lovers calling each other “baby.”  In the fragmentary Sapphic corpus the word pais (παίς), “child” means girl or child 10 times and “somebody’s child” 5 times.   

For Byzantine things more contemporary with the Suda the level of reliable information increases. It is an important source for classical antiquity as well, especially for lexical information, but, as we saw, with some caveats.

 

CARTOGRAPHY AND ARCHAEOLOGY

Map of Constantinople (1422) by Buondelmonti, contained in Liber insularum Archipelagi (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris) is the oldest surviving map of the city, and the only one which antedates the Turkish conquest of the city in 1453.

At the turn of the 14th century two Italians, Cristoforo Buondelmonti and Cyriacus de’ Pizzicolli, broke with the tradition of spending their days scrutinizing texts of ancient authors or searching for manuscripts, and instead sought to record the material culture of classical antiquity. To Buondelmonti, a Florentine monk, we owe the first attempt at cartography applied to Greece, and to Cyriacus, a merchant from Ancona, the beginnings of modern day archaeology. In fact, he considered the monuments and inscriptions to be more faithful witnesses of classical antiquity than the texts of ancient writers.

“At et cum maximas per urbem tam generosissimae gentis reliquias undique solo disiectas aspexisset, lapides et ipsi magnarum rerum gestarum maiorem longe quam ipsi libri fidem et notitiam spectantibus praebere videbantur” (Francesco Scalamonti, Vita Kyriaci Anconitani 56).

“It appeared to him, as he looked upon the great remains left behind by so noble a people, cast to the ground throughout the city, that the stones themselves afforded to modern spectators much more trustworthy information about their splendid history than what was to be found in books.”

In Constantinople in 1444 he was involved in the preparation of the crusade against the Turks in large measure to preserve the material remains of ancient Greece.  The historian and humanist scholar Poggio Bracciolini, the author of  “the most famous jokebook of the Renaissance” (Bowen, 1988, p. 5),  notes sarcastically:

“Ciriacus Anconitanus, homo verbosus et nimium loquax, deplorabat aliquando, astantibus nobis, casum atque eversionem Imperii Romani, inque ea re vehementius angi videbatur” (Facetiae or Jocose Tales of Poggio, vol. I, ch. 82).

“Cyriacus of Ancona, a verbose and inexhaustible speaker, sometimes deplored the fall and breakup of the Roman Empire before our eyes; it seemed to cause him terrible anguish.”

Cyriacus’ drawing of the Parthenon from 1444 with its frieze and pediments intact.

 

COINS

Having a resident Byzantine coin expert we would be remiss if we did not also include the following perfect illustration of the Zenith and Fall of Byzantium.

The first photo represents a copper follis of Justinian I, perhaps the last Byzantine emperor whose native language was Latin. He sought to restore to the empire the western provinces, which had been lost in the 5th century. On the obverse, the emperor is depicted as a Roman “Imperator,” in military dress and helmet, and he holds in his right hand a globe representing the world, surmounted by a cross. The reverse displays pertinent details about the coin and its manufacture; it is a denomination valued at 40 nummia (the large mu = 40), struck at CON(stantinople), bearing the date ANNO XIII = 539/40. The epsilon beneath the mark of value M tells us the coin was struck in the 5th workshop of the Constantinople mint (gratias Mike).

The second photo shows the development of Christian religious iconography on the coinage, in this case, the type of Christ/portrait of emperor and its increasing poverty of representation echoing the decline of the empire. The obverse portrait of Christ, shown nimbate, with the cross represented behind him, is adapted from icons. Christ holds in his left hand a book of the Gospels (on the viewer’s right), the cover of which is decorated with jewels (most visible on the middle coin — there are 5 jewels there). Christ’s right hand (on the viewer’s left) is raised in a gesture derived from Roman artistic convention representing speech. The top coin is a gold nomisma of Basil II, 976-1025, whom later Byzantine writers nicknamed Boulgaroktonos, the “Bulgar‐Slayer,” because he blinded an army of 15,000 captives and thereby not only destroyed the army but also broke the spirit of the Bulgarian state which ultimately led to it being subsumed under the Byzantine empire. Basil appears on the left, accompanied by his brother Constantine VIII, who enjoyed nominal imperial power while his brother ran the empire. Basil’s reign ushered in the zenith of Byzantine power and influence in the middle ages. The next coin, in silver, was struck under the emperor John V Palaiologos, 1341-91, and one can see the growing stylization of the types, which is brought to an even more extreme state in the last coin, again, in silver, of Constantine XI, 1448-1453.

Christ Pantocrator mosaic in the Cathedral of Monreale, Sicily (constructed between 1170 and 1189).

 

Brief bibliography

On the Fall:

Barbaro, Nicolò. Diary of the Siege of Constantinople, 1453. Translated [from the Italian] by J. R. Jones. New York, Exposition Press [1969]. cl-g DF649 .B313

Carroll, Margaret G. A Contemporary Greek Source for the Siege of Constantinople, 1453: The Sphrantzes Chronicle. Amsterdam: A.M. Hakkert, 1985. cl-g DF645.P483 C37 1985

Haldon, John F. The Fall of Constantinople: The Ottoman Conquest of Byzantium. Oxford; New York : Osprey, 2007. cl-g DR730 .H35 2007

Phrantzes, Georgius. Chronikon Geōrgiou Phrantzē. English. The Fall of the Byzantine Empire: A Chronicle; translated by Marios Philippides. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980. cl-g DF645 .G4813

Runciman, Steven, Sir. The Fall of Constantinople, 1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965. cl-g DF649 .R8

On Byzantium in general:

Garland, Lynda. Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium, AD 527-1204. London; New York: Routledge, 1999. cl-g DF572.8.E5 G37 1999

Gregory, Timothy E. A History of Byzantium. 2nd ed. Chichester, U.K.; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. cl-g DF552 .G68 2010

Haldon, John F. Byzantium: A History. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus; Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2000. cl-g DF521 .H32 2000

Herrin, Judith. Women in Purple: Rulers of Medieval Byzantium. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2001. cl-g DF581.3 .H47 2001

__________. Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. cl-g DF521 .H477 2007

Mango, Cyril, ed. The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. cl-g DF552 .O94 2002

Shepard, Jonathan, ed. The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c. 500-1492. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. cl-g DF571 .C34 2008

Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997. cl-g DF552 .T65 1997

Classics Library: Student Assistant Positions Available — Apply Now!

The Classics Library is currently accepting applications for student assistants.

Tasks include:

  • staffing the Circulation Desk
  • shelving books and keeping order in the book stacks
  • filling ILL and OhioLink requests
  • searching book lists
  • other tasks as needed

Positions require a commitment of at least 10–12 hours per week. Some positions require a federal Work/Study grant. Preference will be given to students with background in Classics (Ancient Greek and Latin) and to students with foreign language skills. However, all humanities students are welcome to apply.

The library is located on the 1st floor of the Blegen Library building.

Please fill out the application form below and return to Rebecka Lindau, Head, rebecka.lindau@uc.edu or to Yo Shionoya,  Interim Circulation and Student Worker Supervisor, Classics Library shionoyo@mail.uc.edu . Continue reading Classics Library: Student Assistant Positions Available — Apply Now!

“An Evening with Aristophanes”: Talk and Performances in the John Miller Burnam Classics Library

On March 28, 2019, faculty and students from CCM and Classics as well as from UCL gathered for an evening of fun, celebrating the life and work of the great Greek comedy playwright Aristophanes (ca. 446-386 BCE), especially his play Lysistrata about a strong and intelligent Athenian woman who hatches an ingenious plan to end the Peloponnesian War. The evening included an engaging expert talk by Susan Prince, Associate Professor of Classics, a recital, masterfully directed by Brant Russell, Assistant Professor of Acting at CCM, and brilliantly acted by graduate students from CCM and Classics, accompanied by superbly played “ancient Greek Dionysian” music, arranged by Yo Shionoya, graduate student at CCM and interim Student, Circulation, and Stack Supervisor in the Classics Library. The evening celebrating not only Aristophanes but also Dionysus, (Modern) Greek Independence Day, the Annunciation of the Theotokos, and the recent accomplishments of American female politicians(!) concluded with a delectable feast of Greek food and “wine”. To enjoy a video recording of the evening, see the link at the bottom of the page.

aristophanesflyer

aristophanes_program

Tweet by Neville G. Pinto, President of the University of Cincinnati:

https://twitter.com/Prez_Pinto/status/1110219524249477123

Theater in Ancient Athens was performed during festivals to honor Dionysus, the god of wine, fertility, theater, ecstatic dance and music. His attributes included grapes, pine cones, wine cups, vines, ivy, leopard skin.  Continue reading “An Evening with Aristophanes”: Talk and Performances in the John Miller Burnam Classics Library

Our Favorite Aristophanes Quotes

In connection with an event in the Classics Library’s Reading Room on March 28 to celebrate the life and works of the Greek comedy playwright Aristophanes (with lecture, recital of Lysistrata, “Dionysian” music, and Greek food), here are some of our favorite Aristophanes quotes.

“Quickly, bring me a beaker of wine, so that I may wet my mind and say something witty” (Knights 95-96).

“Always keep the people on your side by sweetening them with gourmet bons mots” (Knights 215-16).

“By words the mind is winged”  (Birds 1447-48).

“Look at the orators in our republics; as long as they are poor, both state and people can only praise their uprightness; but once they are fattened on the public funds, they conceive a hatred for justice, plan intrigues against the people and attack the democracy” (Assemblywomen 206-208).

 “Let each man exercise the art he knows” (Wasps 1431).

“High thoughts must have high language” (Frogs 1058-59).

“[Y]ou possess all the attributes of a demagogue; a screeching, horrible voice, a perverse, crossgrained nature and the language of the market-place. In you all is united which is needful for governing” (Knights 217-219).

“You [demagogues] are like the fishers for eels; in still waters they catch nothing, but if they thoroughly stir up the slime, their fishing is good; in the same way it’s only in troublous times that you line your pockets” (Knights 864-67).

“It is from their foes, not their friends, that cities learn the lesson of building high walls” (Birds 378-79).

“What matters that I was born a woman, if I can cure your misfortunes? I pay my share of tolls and taxes, by giving men to the State. But you, you miserable greybeards, you contribute nothing to the public charges; on the contrary, you have wasted the treasure of our forefathers, as it was called, the treasure amassed in the days of the Persian Wars. You pay nothing at all in return; and into the bargain you endanger our lives and liberties by your mistakes. Have you one word to say for yourselves?… Ah! don’t irritate me, you there, or I’ll lay my slipper across your jaws; and it’s pretty heavy” (Lysistrata 649-657).

 “[Y]ou [man] are fool enough, it seems, to dare to war with [woman=] me, when for your faithful ally you might win me easily” (Lysistrata 1016-17).

“Under every stone lurks a politician”  (Thesmophoriazusae  529-30).

“A man can learn wisdom even from a foe” (Birds 375).

 “Politics, these days, is no occupation for an educated man, a man of character.
Ignorance and total lousiness are better”  (Knights 191-93) — Rebecka’s favorite quote.

“Men of sense often learn from their enemies. It is from their foes, not their friends, that cities learn the lesson of building high walls and ships of war; and this lesson saves their children, their homes, and their properties” (Birds 375-80).

“Comedy too can sometimes discern what is right” (Acharnians 500).

“Shrines! Shrines! Surely you don’t believe in the gods. What’s your argument? Where’s your proof” (Knights 32-33)?

“Have you ever looked up and seen a cloud resembling a centaur, or a leopard, or a wolf, or a bull” (Clouds 346-47) — Mike’s favorite quote 1.

“Socrates: No, I just want to ask you a few questions. For instance, do you have a good memory?

Strepsiades: Yes and no, by Zeus: if I’m owed something, it’s good, but if I’m the hapless debtor, it’s bad” (Clouds 482-85).

“… and it is my heart’s desire, after many a long season, to embrace the fig trees that I planted myself when I was young” (Peace 558-59).

“Well, in our opinion it’s possible to hear them out first; a wise person can in fact learn something beneficial even from his enemies” (Birds 381-82).

“Ah democracy, what will you bring us to in the end, if the gods can elect this person ambassador” (Birds 1570-71)?

“One’s country is wherever one does well” (Wealth 1151).

“When I’m in the audience and see one of those clever bits, I go home a whole year older” (Frogs 16-18) – Angelica’s favorite quote.

“…brekekekex koax koax!” (Frogs 210) — Mike’s favorite quote 2.

Animals in Antiquity: Virtual Exhibition (+ Physical Poster Exhibit at Langsam)

Introduction

Considering the omnipresence of artistic and literary representations of animals in antiquity and the vital importance of their domestication for the rise and evolution of Western civilization, it is remarkable how little attention modern scholars have given this subject until the past 10 years or so. Of course, in that it correlates with a focus on freeborn Athenian and Roman men at the expense of all others. However, in recent years, classicists have extended their interests to include also women, children, slaves, “barbarians” and now, most recently, the vast topic of animals.  The studies published so far, though, have only begun to scratch the surface.

To represent more than 5,000 years of history and every kind of artistic and literary representation of and scientific theory about various animal species (with the Human animal species “exempted”) from a geographic area comprising much of Asia, Africa, and virtually all of Europe is, needless to say, an impossible task. This exhibition instead highlights a few notable depictions and narratives in art and literature from books and artifacts in the UC Classics Library relating to animals, i.e., how Humans in antiquity viewed other animal species.

Animals in antiquity were divinities, especially in Egypt – Anubis a Dog, Horus a Falcon, Bastet a Cat, Sekhmet a Lion, Thoth a Baboon and Ibis. In Ancient Greece and Rome they were the companions or theomorphic stand-ins for gods and goddesses such as Athena and her Owl, Hera and her Peacock, Artemis and her Deer, and Aphrodite and her Swan. Many animals were considered sacred to the ancient Greeks and Romans; for example, Snakes in the worship of Apollo, Dionysus, and Asclepius, Pigs in the cult of Demeter, Bees and Bears in the cult of Artemis.

As Humans went from a nomadic existence to one of settlers and farmers, they began taming and using animals for their own purposes. After their domestication, Bulls, Cows, Horses, Donkeys, Pigs, Sheep, Goats were used to plow fields, to provide milk, transportation, and clothing. Wild Boars were hunted for “displays of manhood” by well-to-do young men as were various Birds, Deer, Hare, and even Lizards.  Some animals were made companions or pets such as Sparrows, Pigeons, Doves, Dogs, Cats, Monkeys and even such wild animals as Gazelles and Cheetahs. Animals in Greece, Rabbits, Dogs, Roosters, and Doves, were given as presents, also in courtship as “love gifts.” Mice and various kinds of Fish were eaten in antiquity, but they, too, could be pets and sacred to the gods. Animals such as Horses and Elephants were used in war; for example, in the second Punic War at the Battle of Cannae in 216 BCE, and as entertainment, for example, among the Romans at the Colosseum where Lions, Tigers, Elephants, Giraffes, Bears, Rhinoceroses, Hippopotamuses, Wild Donkeys, Hyenas, and Ostriches were forced to fight to their deaths. Greek and Roman authors such as Plutarch, Aelian, and Pliny the Elder wrote about animals in works on ethics, morals, and natural history and prose, poetry, and history writers such as Homer, Aesop’s Fables, Herodotus, Lucretius, Oppian, Ovid, Diodorus Siculus, and Dio Cassius frequently used animals to tell stories and to illustrate the Human experience.

The exhibition (text written and images and ancient text passages selected by Rebecka Lindau) is dedicated to the memory of Cincinnatian Dog Tetris, Pig Georgi, and Rat Nug, Roman Cats Cleopatra and Francesca, Florentine Cats BJ and Ban Ki-Moon, and Roman Pigeon Cristoforo Colomba.

     

          

The term antiquity can be applied to different parts of the world. “Antiquity” in this context refers to western classical antiquity, especially ancient Greece and Rome, but also to areas which influenced and preceded them, the ancient Near East and Egypt, and the Minoan and Etruscan civilizations.

Ancient Near East (c. 3200-6th century BCE)

Map of Ancient Egypt (c. 3100-30 BCE)

Ancient Egypt (c. 3100-30 BCE)

Map of Minoan Crete (c. 2700-1400 BCE)

Minoan Crete (c. 2700-1400 BCE)

Mycenaean Greece (c. 1400-100 BCE)

Map of Ancient Greece, Archaic period (750-490 BCE)

Ancient Greece, Archaic period (c. 750-490 BCE)

Map of Etruscan Civilization (c. 900-3rd century BCE)

Etruscan Civilization (c. 900-3rd century BCE)

Map of Roman Empire (during the time of Emperor Augustus, 63 BCE-14 CE)

Roman Empire (during the time of Emperor Augustus, b. 63 BCE-d. 14 CE)

Several animals such as Cows, Sheep, and Dogs were first domesticated in the Near East in the area known as the Fertile Crescent between the rivers Tigris and the Euphrates more than 5,000 years ago. Before the invention of weapons, our human ancestors were themselves hunted as easy prey animals without fangs and claws to defend themselves and with limited ability to run, jump, and climb.

Eventually, with the invention of spears and arrows the tables turned and Humans began to hunt other animal species; however, meat, contrary to the stereotypical image of the “cave man,” constituted a very small portion of the prehistoric diet. Most of the food was collected by so called gatherers, often women, who gathered roots, nuts, seeds, grains, wild mushrooms, wild olives, wild figs, and other wild seeds, fruits and berries. The killed animals, rather than being eaten, may originally have been offered to please or plead with the gods, a custom that continued in ancient Greece and Rome (ca. 1400 BCE-4th century CE).  No animal in pagan antiquity was killed strictly for food. The meat was shared by humans and their gods to whom the animals had been sacrificed on special occasions such as religious festivals, which in ancient Greece often included theater/music and athletic competitions, such as at the City Dionysia and the Olympic Games, all to honor particular gods and goddesses.

Animals in Ancient History and Art

One of the earliest animals to be domesticated in the Near East was the Goat, judging from evidence from Neolithic (later Stone Age) Jericho ca. 7000-6000 BCE. Neolithic farmers began to herd Wild Goats for milk and wool. Their browsing was also useful to clear away brush for planting and to prevent fires. Their dung was used as fuel and building material.

The famous “Billy Goat in a Thicket” from Sumer, Near East, ca. 2600 BCE. Made of gold leaves and lapis lazuli. British Museum.

A furniture plaque made of Elephant tusks (ivory) in the form of a browsing Goat, Neo-Assyrian from Nimrud, Near East, ca. 8th century BCE. Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The pantheon of the ancient Egyptians was replete with animals.

A facsimile from 1898 of the “Papyrus of Ani,” in the Classics Library’s Reading Room features the Egyptian Book of the Dead. It depicts the royal scribe Ani and his wife Thuthu entering the Hall of Judgement, Ani’s soul, the Dog god Anubis testing the tongue of Balance, the Baboon god Thoth recording the result of the weighing with the Crocodile, Leopard, Hippo composite animal, Devourer of the Unjustified, standing by, the Falcon god Horus leading Ani to Osiris. During the 19th dynasty the dead were entombed with a copy of the Book of the Dead as a provision on their journey to Eternity. During the burial ceremony a priest would read from this book. The texts that it contained depicted in great detail the stages of rebirth, one of which was the weighing of the soul. The dead person’s heart was put in one pan of a scale, and in the other was placed the Feather of Ma’at (the Bird-like Goddess of Justice and Truth). The sacred writing (hieroglyphs) told the story along with colored vignettes on rolls from the papyrus plant. 

There are numerous images of animals in antiquity on pottery, in frescoes, on coins, on temples, in figurines and sculptures. This is one of the most famous and beautiful depictions of Dolphins in antiquity.

A pod of Dolphins on a Minoan fresco from the so called Queen’s Megaron, Knossos, ca. 1500 BCE.

The Minoans (a Bronze Age civilization ca. 2700-1400 BCE on Crete and surrounding islands) displayed a remarkable sense of movement and delicate elegance in their art, especially when depicting nature scenes as in the so called Blue Monkey fresco from Thera (Santorini). Colors seem to have had special meaning to the Minoans, including the color blue.

Blue Monkey fresco. Thera (Santorini). Room Beta 6. West Wall, ca. 1500 BCE. 

Both Minoan women (painted white) and men (painted red-brown) participated in acrobatic “performances,” which involved jumping over Bulls. The Bulls, however, were not killed as in contemporary Spanish bullfights, but were sacred to the Minoans.

 

The so called Bull-leaping fresco from the East Wing of the “Palace” of Knossos, ca. 1600-1400 BCE.

That animals were used in farming by the early Greeks is witnessed by texts on clay tablets from the Mycenaean civilization (ca. 1400-1100 BCE), written in the earliest form of Greek, the so called Linear B script. This tablet was discovered at Knossos on Crete and mentions Goats, Boars, Cows, and Bulls. Dated to ca. 1400 BCE.

The so called Lion Gate leading to the citadel of Mycenae on the Peloponnese is the most recognizable monumental art work of the early Greek Mycenaean civilization, ca. 1250 BCE. 

Greek marble sculpture of a Lion, late-4th century BCE. Cincinnati Art Museum.

“Exotic” animals such as Lions, Leopards, and Panthers were popular as illustrations in Greek art, especially on Greek pottery during the so called Archaic/Orientalizing period (ca. 8-6th century BCE) when Corinth on the Peloponnese was a wealthy production and trading center.

Orientalizing Corinthian oinochoe (wine jug) featuring Sphinxes, Lions, Panthers, ca. 620 BCE. Glyptothek, Munich.

Panther or Leopard on a Corinthian alabastron (perfume bottle). Early 6th BCE. UC Classics Library. On loan from the UC Art Collection.

 

Panthers or Leopards on an Italo-Corinthian vase with handle, 6th century BCE. UC Classics Library. On loan from the UC Art Collection.

Another very popular motif in the archaic or Orientalizing period of Greek art was the so called Potnia Thērōn, “Mistress of Animals,” a goddess flanked by animals on either side such as Birds, Lions, Bulls, Deer, Griffins (dinosaur-like legendary creatures). There are also many “Master of Animals” depictions with male gods especially from the Near East, Mesopotamia, but also later from Assyria and Persia.  It is not easy to interpret these images, but they could signal dominion over life or over the creation of life.

This handle of an Attic black-figure volute krater (to mix water and wine) referred to as “the François Vase” represents Artemis, the Greek goddess of animals and nature, with a Panther or Leopard and her special animal, a Deer. By Kleitias. 570-560 BCE. National Archaeological Museum of Florence.

Animals decorated all sorts of texts during the European Middle Ages (ca. 1100-1453 CE) which to a large extent continued the ancient conventions in art and literature. Ancient literary texts were copied in so called scriptoria by Christian monks and nuns and ancient art and architecture could still be seen all over Europe.

The margins of illuminated medieval manuscripts were frequently filled with every kind of animal, real and imagined. In fact, a technical term for marginal illuminations or “grotesques” is Baboon or Baboyne or Babewyne. Although most colors were plant based, the red pigment was usually made from the blood of various Insects. The pages of medieval manuscripts were made from the skin of animals, mostly from Calves, Sheep, and Goats.

   

Original leaf from an illuminated manuscript Psalter – Prayer-book. 21-23 lines of Latin text. From Hildesheim 1524. Panel with a Fox trying to reach a Rooster that is perched atop a flower and (verso) a Dog leaping across the bottom of the page – similar to Aesop’s Fables. UC Classics Library.

So called Bestiaries were one of the most popular medieval literary genres. A Bestiary was an illustrated codex describing various animals and plants usually accompanied by a moral lesson after the example of Aesop’s Fables from antiquity.

Lizard-Leopard and Horse-Ram-Boar composite animals. Liber Floridus (“Flower Book”) is a medieval encyclopedia about plants and animals, in part a “Bestiary,” compiled between 1090 and 1120 CE by Lambert, Canon of Saint-Omer. This copy in the Classics Library is a facsimile of the oldest of the known copies of the manuscript. The original is in the Library of the University of Ghent.

 

In this rare facsimile (Cod. Urb. lat. 277) of the Latin translation by Jacopo D’Angelo from 1406 of an atlas by Ptolemy from the 2nd century CE, animals — Leopard, Dog, Deer, Swan(?), Eagle, Ermine, etc. – in the marginal illustrations abound. UC Classics Library.

The animals featured could also be hybrid “fantasy” animals such as the Centaur (Horse-Man), Sphinx (Lion-Woman), Hippocamp (Fish-Horse), Minotaur (Bull-Man), Griffin (Eagle-Lion), Typhon (Snake-Man), Medusa (Snake-Woman), and Chimaera (Lion-Goat-Snake).

Possibly the most famous depiction of a fantasy animal in classical antiquity is an Etruscan sculpture of the Chimaera. The Etruscans (ca. 900-3rd century BCE), a civilization dominating central and northern Italy before the Romans, and who even served as early kings of Rome itself, were anthropocentric in their art but displayed a similar exuberance in colors and movement as the Minoans once had done. Whereas the Minoans had the Minotaur, at least according to later Greek art and literature, the Etruscans had the Winged Horse, Griffin, Typhon, Medusa, and the Chimaera although the Minotaur survived also among the Etruscans. Much of what we know about Etruscan art comes from tomb and vase paintings. In fact, many of the Greek vases admired in museums all over the world were discovered in Etruscan tombs.  The fantasy animals are generally thought to be demons encountered upon death in the underworld. The famous She-Wolf in the Capitoline Museums in Rome probably also had Etruscan background although some scholars believe it to be medieval.

The Chimaera. Etruscan bronze sculpture from Arezzo, ca. 400 BCE. National Archaeological Museum of Florence.

Perhaps the most famous animal symbol from antiquity is the mother Wolf of Rome’s foundation myth. She nursed and protected the twins Romulus and Remus after they had been abandoned on the order of the king of Alba Longa, an ancient city close to what was to become Rome. The Wolf cared for the twins in a cave known as the Lupercal, still shown to tourists at the southwestern foot of the Palatine Hill in Rome.  Romulus later became the legendary founder and first king of Rome.

 

A bronze cast of the famous She-Wolf nursing Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome, in Cincinnati’s Eden Park was a gift to our city from the City of Rome under the Italian fascist leader Benito Mussolini (1883-1945).

The She-Wolf with Romulus and Remus on a bronze sestertius from the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161 CE) to commemorate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome. Photo by Mike Braunlin.

Almost as famous a symbol from classical antiquity as the Roman She-Wolf is the Goddess Athena’s Owl and by extension the symbol of Athens. Greek and Roman gods and goddesses were either featured with their animal companions/attributes or their animals were depicted alone as substitutes for the deity such as Athena and her Owl. The goddess was the patron deity of the city-state of Athens and its coins usually depicted the goddess on one side and her Owl on the other.

Owl on an Athenian silver tetradrachm, ca. 449-404 BCE.

 

Owl on an Attic skyphos (wine cup), second quarter of 5th century BCE. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

The Athenian Owl on a red-figure lekythos (oil container) from Nola, Southern Italy, ca. 4th century BCE. (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin) Antikensammlung, Berlin.

Many of the Greek city states, besides Athens, had animals (and deities) as symbols, for example.

Ephesus and its Bee sacred to Artemis on a silver tetradrachm, ca. 350-340 BCE.

 

Aegina and its Turtle. Silver stater, ca. 445-431 BCE.

Lycia (in modern-day Turkey) and its Tortoise and Boar. Silver stater, ca. 490-430 BCE.

 

Lycia could also be represented by a Panther or Leopard as on this silver hemiobol, ca. 400-390 BCE. Photo by Mike Braunlin.

 

This gives a sense of the tiny size of the hemiobol above as compared to that of an American penny. The artistic mastery of working in such a small space is quite astonishing. Photo by Mike Braunlin.

This coin featuring twin Panthers or Leopards along with a Lion on the reverse is also from Lycia. Silver stater, ca. 450-380 BCE. Most figures in ancient art were portrayed in profile, so when they appear with frontal faces as here and as the Panther/Leopard on the hemiobol, it is thought that they served an apotropaic function, i.e., to ward off evil spirits or bad luck. However, it could perhaps also be an artistic attempt at breaking with convention.

Syracuse, Sicily, and its nymph goddess Arethusa surrounded by Dolphins. Silver tetradrachm, ca. 310 BCE.

Syracuse could also be represented by an Octopus as on this Greek silver litra, ca. 466-405 BCE.

 

Carthage (present-day Tunisia, North Africa) by a Horse as on this electrum stater, ca. 310-290 BCE.

Akragas (modern Agrigento, Sicily) by a Crab as on this silver didrachm, ca. 495-478 BCE.

 

Tarentum (modern Taranto, Calabria) by its eponymous founder Taras riding a Dolphin. Silver didrachm, ca. 3rd century BCE.

There were many tales in antiquity of people being rescued by Dolphins such as Arion, the purported inventor of the dithyramb, which, according to Greek philosopher Aristotle, was the origin of Greek tragedy, who after being kidnapped by pirates escaped on the back of a Dolphin or so the story goes.

Attic red-figure lekythos with a young man riding on a Dolphin, ca. 500-450 BCE. (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin) Antikensammlung, Berlin.  

The famous cult statue of Artemis and her temple at Ephesus, now in modern-day Turkey, were counted among the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. The statue is full of animals — on the goddess’ dress, headgear, and sandals. The identification of the bulbous protrusions in the front has been hotly debated. The most logical interpretation is of the Goddess of Nature nursing all her children – animals and plants alike — or possibly seeds to feed life. The temple’s beehive organization with priestesses called bees and priests drones may point to a representation of eggs. A wildly speculative and nonsensical theory is that they represent Bull scrota.

A replica of the cult statue of Ephesian Artemis in the Museum of Ephesus. The earliest temple and statue date back to the Bronze Age although this copy is dated much later. Christians eventually destroyed the temple and statue in the 5th century CE.

Artemis of Ephesus worshiped “in Asia and all the world.” A Roman copy of an original from the 2nd century BCE. Capitoline Museums, Rome.

Ritual Sacrifice of Animals

The sacrifice of animals to various deities was quite common although not as frequent as Christians would later contend. It was generally limited to large official and formal religious ceremonies. Most everyday offerings were in the form of libations and fruits, seeds, and nuts and other plants. Nevertheless, an important animal sacrifice in ancient Rome was the “Suovetaurilia,” the offering of a Pig (sus), a Sheep (ovis), and a Bull (taurus) to the god Mars to bless and purify land around which boundaries the animals were led. Some ancient Greeks and Romans as well as modern scholars have theorized that animal sacrifice had its origin in human sacrifice to placate a deity in times of extreme danger such as during an earthquake, war, or famine. If this was so, it is unclear how and when it became more “commonplace” or when nonhuman animals were substituted for Human.

Ara Pacis, the “Altar of Peace,” is full of contradictions. It was built at the corner of Campus Martius, the Field of Mars, the god of War, to honor the goddess Pax (Peace) after the Roman Emperor Augustus’s conquest of Hispania and Gaul. At its inauguration in 9 BCE the customary Pig, Sheep, and Bull were led to their violent slaughter.

The most famous Human sacrifice in classical antiquity was that of the virgin Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, one of the Greek kings from the Trojan War. Although there are different versions of the ending, one of the most popular was told by the Greek playwright Euripides (ca. 480–ca. 406 BCE) who had the goddess Artemis, to whom the sacrifice had been offered in the first place, substitute the Human girl for a Deer, which perhaps could be interpreted as an allegory for an actual development from Human to animal sacrifice. There are many references to Human sacrifice in Greek literature and archaeological evidence pointing to such sacrifice has been unearthed in various places on Minoan-Mycenaean Crete (Myrtos, Knossos, Archanes, Chania) and at Etruscan Tarquinia.

Iphigenia at the moment of substitution for a Deer. Volute crater, ca. 370-355 BCE. British Museum.

Animals as Entertainment

The Colosseum saw thousands of wild animals slaughtered. Lions, Tigers, Ostriches, Rhinoceroses, Buffaloes, Bison, Bulls, Bears, Wild Donkeys, Hippos, Giraffes, and Wild Boars were sent into the arena to fight each other, prisoners and gladiators, and also Christians. Roman philosopher and dramatist Seneca (ca. 4 BCE-65 CE) objected to the spectacle in one of his letters.

Letter from Seneca bemoaning the blood spectacle in the arena:

“…it is pure murder. The men have no defensive armor. They are exposed to blows at all points, and no one ever strikes in vain. Many persons prefer this program to the usual pairs and to the bouts “by request.” Of course they do; there is no helmet or shield to deflect the weapon. What is the need of defensive armor, or of skill? All these mean delaying death. In the morning they throw men to the lions and the bears; at noon, they throw them to the spectators. The spectators demand that the slayer shall face the man who is to slay him in his turn; and they always reserve the latest conqueror for another butchering. The outcome of every fight is death, and the means are fire and sword. This sort of thing goes on while the arena is empty” (Seneca, Letter to Lucilius 7).

Roman historian (of Greek origin and writing in Greek) Dio Cassius (ca. 155-235 CE) describes the slaughter of wild animals as theater:

Hippos, Rhinos, Elephants

“[Roman Emperor] Commodus devoted most of his life to ease and to horses and to combats of wild beasts and of men. In fact, besides all that he did in private, he often slew in public large numbers of men and of beasts as well. For example, all alone with his own hands, he dispatched five hippopotami together with two elephants on two successive days; and he also killed rhinoceroses and a camelopard” (Dio Cassius, Roman History 73.10.3).

200 Lions

“On his birthday he [Emperor Hadrian] gave the usual spectacle free to the people and slew many wild beasts, so that one hundred lions, for example, and a like number of lionesses fell on this single occasion” (Dio Cassius, Roman History 69.8.1).

500 Lions, 18 Elephants and human deception

During these same days Pompey dedicated the theatre in which we take pride even at the present time. In it he provided an entertainment consisting of music and gymnastic contests and in the Circus a horse-race and the slaughter of many wild beasts of all kinds. Indeed, five hundred lions were used up in five days, and eighteen elephants fought against men in heavy armor. Some of these beasts were killed at the time and others a little later. For some of them, contrary to Pompey’s wish, were pitied by the people when, after being wounded and ceasing to fight, they walked about with their trunks raised toward heaven, lamenting so bitterly as to give rise to the report that they did so not by mere chance, but were crying out against the oaths in which they had trusted when they crossed over from Africa, and were calling upon Heaven to avenge them. For it is said that they would not set foot upon the ships before they received a pledge under oath from their drivers that they should suffer no harm” (Dio Cassius, Roman History 38).

700 wild Boars, Elephants, Hyena, Ostriches, Bison, Panthers, Wild Asses

At these spectacles [10th anniversary of Emperor Severus’ power] sixty wild boars of Plautianus fought together at a signal and among many other wild beasts that were slain were an elephant and a corocotta [hyena]. This last animal is an Indian species, and was then introduced into Rome for the first time, so far as I am aware. It has the color of a lioness and tiger combined, and the general appearance of those animals, as also of a dog and a fox, curiously blended. The entire receptacle in the amphitheatre had been constructed so as to resemble a boat in shape, and was capable of receiving or discharging four hundred beasts at once; and then, as it suddenly fell apart, there came rushing forth bears, lionesses, panthers, lions, ostriches, wild asses, bisons (this is a kind of cattle foreign in species and appearance), so that seven hundred beasts in all, both wild and domesticated, at one and the same time were seen running about and were slaughtered” (Dio Cassius, Roman History 77).

Modern reconstruction of the “combats” between humans and animals at the Colosseum.

Mosaic featuring a Rhino in staged hunting “games” (venationes) at the arena. Piazza Armerina, Sicily, 4th century CE.

Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (ca. 96-30 BCE) tells the story of Alexander the Great administering a fight between Dogs and a Lion:

To Alexander he presented many impressive gifts, among them one hundred and fifty dogs remarkable for their size and courage and other good qualities. People said that they had a strain of tiger blood. He wanted Alexander to test their mettle in action, and he brought into a ring a full grown lion and two of the poorest of the dogs. He set these on the lion, and when they were having a hard time of it he released two others to assist them. The four were getting the upper hand over the lion when Sopeithes sent in a man with a scimitar who hacked at the right leg of one of the dogs. At this Alexander shouted out indignantly and the guards rushed up and seized the arm of the Indian, but Sopeithes said that he would give him three other dogs for that one, and the handler, taking a firm grip on the leg, severed it slowly. The dog, in the meanwhile, uttered neither yelp nor whimper, but continued with his teeth clamped shut until, fainting with loss of blood, he died on top of the lion” (Diodorus Siculus 17.92).

Animals in War

Not only Horses were used in war, but also Elephants as famously witnessed by the Battle of Cannae in southeast Italy in 216 BCE between Carthage and Rome where the Carthaginian leader Hannibal won probably in no small measure due to his use of Elephants, a sight that terrified the Roman soldiers (and, no doubt, the Elephants, too).

Greek historian Polybius (ca. 200-118 BCE) describes the wading of a river in the Italian Alps by Elephants:

The animals were always accustomed to obey their mahouts up to the water, but would never enter it on any account, and they now drove them along over the earth with two females in front, whom they obediently followed. As soon as they set foot on the last rafts the ropes which held these fast to the others were cut, and the boats pulling taut, the towing lines rapidly tugged away from the pile of earth the elephants and the rafts on which they stood. Hereupon the animals becoming very alarmed at first turned round and ran about in all directions, but as they were shut in on all sides by the stream they finally grew afraid and were compelled to keep quiet. In this manner, by continuing to attach two rafts to the end of the structure, they managed to get most of them over on these, but some were so frightened that they threw themselves into the river when halfway across. The mahouts of these were all drowned, but the elephants were saved, for owing to the power and length of their trunks they kept them above the water and breathed through them, at the same time spouting out any water that got into their mouths and so held out, most of them passing through the water on their feet” (Polybius 3.46).

A silver half shekel, probably featuring Hannibal and an Elephant, Carthage, 213-211 BCE.

Animals as Food

In ancient  Greece, only animals sacrificed to the gods could be eaten after a portion of the animal was given to a particular deity or deities. The everyday staple foods of the ordinary Greek were mainly plant based. However, some Greeks objected to the eating of meat at all. Greek biographer and essayist Plutarch’s (46-120 CE) philosophical dialogue “On the Eating of Flesh” in a series of essays entitled Moralia makes a strong case for vegetarianism.

Greek essayist Plutarch’s (46-120 CE) case for vegetarianism:

Can you really ask what reason Pythagoras had for abstaining from flesh? For my part I rather wonder both by what accident and in what state of soul or mind the first man who did so, touched his mouth to gore and brought his lips to the flesh of a dead creature, he who set forth tables of dead, stale bodies and ventured to call food and nourishment the parts that had a little before bellowed and cried, moved and lived. How could his eyes endure the slaughter when throats were slit and hides flayed and limbs torn from limb? How could his nose endure the stench?” (993a-b).

 When we had tasted and eaten acorns we danced for joy around some oak, calling it “life-giving” and “mother” and “nurse.” “…Why slander the earth by implying that she cannot support you?” (994f).

“Are you not ashamed to mingle domestic crops with blood and gore? You call serpents and panthers and lions savage, but you yourselves, by your own foul slaughters, leave them no room to outdo you in cruelty; for their slaughter is their living, yours is a mere appetizer” (994a-b).

But nothing abashed us, not the flower-like tinting of the flesh, not the persuasiveness of the harmonious voice, not the cleanliness of their habits or the unusual intelligence that may be found in the poor wretches. No, for the sake of a little flesh we deprive them of sun, of light, of the duration of life to which they are entitled by birth and being. Then we go on to assume that when they utter cries and squeaks their speech is inarticulate, that they do not, begging for mercy, entreating, seeking justice…”  (994e).

“What a terrible thing it is to look on when the tables of the rich are spread, men who employ cooks and spices to groom the dead! And it is even more terrible to look on when they are taken away, for more is left than has been eaten. So the animals died for nothing!” (994f).

“…it is absurd for them to say that the practice of flesh-eating is based on Nature. For that man is not naturally carnivorous is, in the first place, obvious from the structure of his body. A man’s frame is in no way similar to those creatures that were made for flesh-eating: he has no hooked beak or sharp nails or jagged teeth, no strong stomach or warmth of vital fluids able to digest and assimilate a heavy diet of flesh. It is from this very fact, the evenness of our teeth, the smallness of our mouths, the softness of our tongues, our possession of vital fluids too inert to digest meat that Nature disavows our eating of flesh” (994f-995a).

“If you declare that you are naturally designed for such a diet, then first kill for yourself what you want to eat. Do it, however, only through your own resources …just as wolves and bears and lions themselves slay what they eat, so you are to fell an ox with your fangs or a boar with your jaws, or tear a lamb or hare in bits. Fall upon it and eat it still living, as animals do” (995a-b)

“…Even when it is lifeless and dead, however, no one eats the flesh just as it is; men boil it and roast it, altering it by fire and drugs, recasting and diverting and smothering with countless condiments the taste of gore so that the palate may be deceived and accept what is foreign to it” (995b).

Another vegetarian was Pythagoras (ca. 570–495 BCE), the Greek philosopher and mathematician. Roman poet Ovid (43 BCE–17/18 CE) in his poem the Metamorphoses gave voice to his position on meat-eating. The passion of Ovid’s narrative makes it tempting to think that it reflects also his own sentiments on the subject. Moreover, the Metamorphoses contain many stories of Humans transformed into animals (and sometimes vice versa) such as Alcaeus into a Deer and Callisto into a Bear, often exhibiting empathy with the animal.

Roman poet Ovid (43 BCE-17/18 CE) on Pythagoras’s vegetarianism:

“He [Pythagoras] was the first to decry the placing of animal food upon our tables. His lips learned indeed but not believed in this, he was the first to open in such words as these:” (15.73-75)

 “O mortals, do not pollute your bodies with a food so impious! You have the fruits of the earth, you have apples, bending down the branches with their weight, and grapes swelling to ripeness on the vines; you have also delicious herbs and vegetables…” (15.75-78).

“The earth, prodigal of her wealth, supplies you her kindly sustenance and offers you food without bloodshed and slaughter” (15.81-82).

”But that pristine age, which we have named the golden age” (15.96-97) “…All things were free from treacherous snares, fearing no guile and full of peace. But after someone, an ill exemplar, whoever he was, envied the food of lions, and thrust down flesh as food into his greedy stomach, he opened the way for crime” (15.102-103).

“Further impiety grew out of that, and it is thought that the sow was first condemned to death as a sacrificial victim because with her broad snout she had rooted up the planted seeds and cut off the season’s promised crop. The goat is held fit for sacrifice at the avenging altars because he had browsed the grape-vines” (15.111-115) “…But, ye sheep, what did you ever do to merit death, a peaceful flock…that bring us sweet milk to drink in your full udders, who give us your wool for soft clothing, and who help more by your life than by your death? What have the oxen done, those faithful, guileless beasts, harmless and simple, born to a life of toil?” (15.116-121) “Nor is it enough that we commit such infamy: they made the gods themselves partners of their crime and they affected to believe that the heavenly ones took pleasure in the blood of the toiling bullock! A victim without blemish and of perfect form (for beauty proves his bane), marked off with fillets and with gilded horns, is set before the altar, hears the priest’s prayer, not knowing what it means, watches the barley-meal sprinkled between his horns, barley which he himself labored to produce, and then, smitten to his death, he stains with his blood the knife which he has perchance already seen reflected in the clear pool. Straightway they tear his entrails from his living breast, view them with care, and seek to find revealed in them the purposes of heaven” (15.127-137) “…when you take the flesh of slaughtered cattle in your mouths, know and realize that you are devouring your own fellow-laborers” (15.141-142).

The Greek Neo-Platonic philosopher Porphyry (ca. 234-305 CE) on veganism:

If…someone should…think it is unjust to destroy brutes, such a one should neither use milk, nor wool, nor sheep, nor honey. For, as you injure a man by taking from him his garments, thus, also, you injure a sheep by shearing it. For the wool which you take from it is its vestment. Milk, likewise, was not produced for you, but for the young of the animal that has it. The bee also collects honey as food for itself; which you, by taking away, administer for your own pleasure” (Porphyry, On Abstinence 1.21).

Animals as Companions/Pets

Companion animals or pets were popular also in antiquity, especially Dogs and Cats, but among the Egyptians also Baboons, various kinds of Monkeys, Fish, Gazelles, Birds, Lions, Mongoose, Hippos, etc., and among the Greeks and Romans, apart from Cats and Dogs also Rabbits, Snakes, Doves, Herons, Cranes, Chickens, Ducks, Geese, Magpies, Quails, Peacocks, Pigeons, Parrots, Nightingales, and other Birds, and, among wealthy Romans, possibly even Deer, Cheetahs, Leopards, and Lions.

Dogs

Probably the most famous Dog in ancient Greece was Argus, the loyal and faithful Dog that recognizes his disguised guardian, the long-lost Greek hero from the Trojan War, Odysseus, in the Homeric epic the Odyssey (8th century BCE) whereupon he dies. Knowing that his guardian was alive and well after being gone for some twenty years allowed the ailing and aged Dog Argus to finally give up the ghost.

Legendary Greek poet Homer (8th century BCE) tells the story about the Dog Argus:

There lay the dog Argus, full of dog ticks. But now, when he became aware that Odysseus was near, he wagged his tail and dropped both ears, but nearer to his master he had no longer strength to move. Then Odysseus looked aside and wiped away a tear, easily hiding from Eumaeus what he did; and immediately he questioned him, and said:

Eumaeus, truly it is strange that this dog lies here in the dung. He is fine of form, but I do not clearly know whether he had speed of foot to match this beauty or whether he is merely as table dogs are, which their masters keep for show.”

“To him then, swineherd Eumaeus, did you make answer and say: “Yes, truly this is the dog of a man who has died in a far land. If he were but in form and action such as he was when Odysseus left him and went to Troy, you would soon be amazed at seeing his speed and his strength…” (Homer, Odyssey 17. 290-327).

“…But as for Argus, the fate of black death seized him once he had seen Odysseus in the twentieth year” (Homer, Odyssey 17. 326-27).

The Dog Argus on a silver denarius, 82 BCE. This image of a young and energetic Argus does not correspond well with the portrait of the old and sick Dog from the Odyssey. Photo by Mike Braunlin.

Roman author (writing in Greek, the lingua Franca of Rome) Aelian (ca. 175-235 CE), too, wrote about the loyalty of Dogs:

A faithful Dog recognizes its guardian’s murderers

Pyrrhus of Epirus was on a journey when he came upon the corpse of a man who had been killed, with his Dog standing beside and guarding its master to prevent anybody from adding outrage to murder. Now it happened that this was the third day for which the Dog was keeping its assiduous and most patient watch, unfed. And so when Pyrrhus learnt this he took pity on the dead man and ordered him to be buried; but as for the Dog, he directed that it should be cared for and gave it whatever one offers a dog with one’s hand, in sufficient quantity and of a nature to induce it to be friendly and well-disposed towards him; and little by little Pyrrhus drew the Dog away. So much then for that. Now not so long after, there was a review of the hoplites, and the King whom I mentioned above was looking on, and that same Dog was at his side. For most of the time it remained silent and completely gentle. But directly it saw the murderers of its master in the review, it could not contain itself or remain where it was, but leaped upon them, barking and tearing them with its claws, and by frequently turning towards Pyrrhus did its best to make him see that it had caught the murderers. And so a suspicion dawned upon the King and those about him, and the way in which the Dog barked at the aforesaid men caused them to reflect. The men were seized and put on the rack and confessed their crime” (Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 7.10).

Aelian further described how Dogs were quite often rewarded for their loyalty by having their portraits painted as in the case of a Dog accompanying its guardian to war.

Their hounds used to accompany the people to war, and in fact these allies were an advantage and a help to them. An Athenian took with him a Dog as fellow-soldier to the battle of Marathon, and both are figured in a painting in the Stoa Poecile, nor was the Dog denied honor but received the reward of the danger it had undergone in being seen among the companions of Cynegirus, Epizelus, and Callimachus. They and the Dog were painted by Micon, though some say it was not his work but that of Polygnotus of Thasos” (Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 7.38).

Women were frequently the butt of jokes of the Roman satirist Juvenal (first-early second century CE). Here he may have captured “a grain of truth.” During the so called second wave feminism in the 1970s and early 1980s some women wore buttons and t-shirts that read: “The more I learn about men, the more I appreciate my dog.”  This humorous motto may already have been embraced by Roman women in Juvenal’s day.

Roman satirist Juvenal (1st-early 2nd century CE) on women preferring Dogs to men:

“The woman I cannot stand is the one who calculatingly commits an enormous crime in full command of her senses. They watch Alcestis endure her husband’s death and if a similar swap were offered to them, they’d happily see their husbands die to save their puppy’s life” (Juvenal, Satire 6.653-4).

“Courtier” Petronius’s “Cena Trimalchionis” (written during the reign of Emperor Nero) forms part of a larger novel, Satyricon. This satire describes the excesses and vulgarities of wealthy Romans and how pet Dogs were status symbols among the wealthy.

Roman “courtier” and writer Petronius (ca. 27-66 CE) recounts the story of Trimalchio and his Dogs:

“Trimalchio himself also, after imitating a man with a trumpet, looked round for his favorite, whom he called Croesus. The creature had blear eyes and very bad teeth, and was tying up an unnaturally obese black puppy in a green handkerchief, and then putting a broken piece of bread on a chair, and cramming it down the throat of the dog that did not want it and felt sick. This reminded Trimalchio of his duties, and he ordered them to bring in Scylax,” the guardian of the house and the slaves.” An enormous dog on a chain was at once led in, and on receiving a kick from the porter as a hint to lie down, he curled up in front of the table. Then Trimalchio threw him a bit of white bread and said, “No one in my house loves me better than Scylax.” The favorite took offence at his lavish praise of the dog, and put down the  puppy, and encouraged her to attack at once. Scylax, after the manner of dogs, of course, filled the dining-room with a most hideous barking, and nearly tore Croesus’s little Pearl to pieces” (Petronius, Satyricon 64).

Trimalchio commanded that his Dog be carved on his tomb at the feet of his statue, and, on his right, an effigy of his beloved wife Fortunata holding a Dove in her hand and leading her Puppy on a leash.

Fortunata holding a dove, and let her be leading a little dog with a waistband [leash] on” (Petronius. Satyricon 71).

Pet Burials and Epitaphs

Pet burials with tomb stones were not uncommon, especially in Rome where, for example, a tombstone with a sculpted Dog holds an epitaph to a Dog named Helena, dated to 150-200 CE, now at the Getty Villa in Los Angeles. The Latin inscription reads: “To Helena, foster daughter, incomparable and trustworthy soul.”

We read that an Athenian named Poliarch was so attached to his pets that if a pet Dog or Rooster died, he held public funerals to which his friends were invited, and he had inscribed tombstones erected to them.

They say that Poliarchus the Athenian arrived at so great a height of Luxury, that he caused those Dogs and Cocks which he had loved, being dead, to be carried out solemnly, and invited friends to their Funerals, and buried them splendidly, erecting Columns over them, on which were engraved Epitaphs” (Aelian, Various Histories 8.4).

Just like today’s homeowners, the ancients also used dogs for protection. This mosaic from Pompeii depicts a chained guard dog with the inscription Cave Canem (Be Aware of the Dog), terminus ante quem 79 CE.

Probably the saddest but also most famous image of a Dog from antiquity is the guard Dog who because it was chained could not escape the ashes of the volcanic eruption of Vesuvius that buried the town of Pompeii in 79 CE and so died in agony.

Cats

Cats are generally believed to have been domesticated in ancient Egypt some 4,000 years ago; however, evidence suggests that the Cat may have been part of the household in the Near East already some 14,000 years ago along with Sheep, Goats, and Dogs.

The so called Gayer-Anderson Cat (the Cat goddess Bastet) from Ancient Egypt, Late Period ca. 664-332 BCE. Made of bronze with gold ornaments. British Museum.

The Lion goddess Sekhmet, ca. 1390-1352 BCE. Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Sekhmet, the Lion Goddess. 19th Dynasty, 1350-1205 BCE. Made of black granite. Cincinnati Art Museum.

Egyptian Cat goddess Bastet, ca. 664-30 BCE. Made of leaded bronze. Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Cats and Lions were sacred in ancient Egypt. There was even a Cat goddess, Bastet. They were used both as pets and mousers. Many Cat owners had their Cats mummified to accompany them in death, although mummified Cats and Cat figurines were mostly given as offerings to the immensely popular Cat goddess at her temple in Bubastis (Tell Basta), where amulets and votive figurines of the goddess were mass produced and festivals with wine, song and dance in her honor were held.

Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 484-425 BCE) on the festival of the Cat goddess:

“…when they have reached Bubastis, they make a festival with great sacrifices, and more wine is drunk at this feast than in the whole year beside. Men and women (but not children) are wont to assemble there to the number of seven hundred thousand, as the people of the place say” (Herodotus 2.60).

The Ancient Egyptians believed in life after death. Literally, thousands of Cat mummies have been excavated in Egypt. However, many also felt bad about killing Cats for mummification so most of the many Cat mummies found in Egyptian tombs and temples are actually fake. In fact, the penalty for killing a Cat in Egypt, even by accident, was death. The export of Cats from Egypt was so strictly prohibited that government agents were dispatched to other lands to find and return Cats which had been smuggled out. This speaks to the extraordinary high regard for Cats in ancient Egypt.

Diodorus Siculus on embalming Cats:

When one of these animals dies they wrap it in fine linen and then, wailing and beating their breasts, carry it off to be embalmed; and after it has been treated with cedar oil and such spices as have the quality of imparting a pleasant odor and of preserving the body for a long time, they lay it away in a consecrated tomb” (1.83.5-6).

Numerous Cat mummies were found in the desert at Beni Hassan, about a hundred miles from Cairo in the late 1800s. Unfortunately, most were sold on the private antiquities market. 

The death penalty for killing a Cat

And whoever intentionally kills one of these animals is put to death, unless it be a cat or an ibis that he kills; if he kills one of these [cats], whether intentionally or unintentionally, he is certainly put to death, for the common people gather in crowds and deal with the perpetrator most cruelly, sometimes doing this without waiting for a trial. And because of their fear of such a punishment any who have caught sight of one of these animals lying dead withdraw to a great distance and shout with lamentations and protestations that they found the animal already dead. So deeply implanted also in the hearts of the common people is their superstitious regard for these animals and so unalterable are the emotions cherished by every man regarding the honor due to them that once, at the time when Ptolemy their king had not as yet been given by the Romans the appellation of “friend” and the people were exercising all zeal in courting the favor of the embassy from Italy which was then visiting Egypt and, in their fear, were intent upon giving no cause for complaint or war, when one of the Romans killed a cat and the multitude rushed in a crowd to his house, neither the officials sent by the king to beg the man off nor the fear of Rome which all the people felt were enough to save the man from punishment, even though his act had been an accident. And this incident we relate, not from hearsay, but we saw it with our own eyes on the occasion of the visit we made to Egypt” (Diodorus Siculus 1.83.1-8).

A telling and frightening story is that of the Persian army led by Cambyses II at the Battle of Pelusium in 525 BCE.

The Persians used the Egyptian veneration for Cats and other animals against them by in addition to painting Cats on their shields, also placing Dogs, Sheep, Ibises, and especially Cats in the front lines of the battle configuration which prevented the Egyptians from defending themselves because of their concern for the animals’ safety, which ultimately led to Egypt being conquered.

Greek historian Herodotus, writing about the Egyptian veneration for Cats, explains that when a Cat dies a natural death, all who dwell in the house of that Cat shave their eyebrows to express their sorrow. The time of mourning ends only when the eyebrows grow back.

Herodotus on mourning Cat:

And when a fire breaks out very strange things happen to the cats. The Egyptians stand round in a broken line, thinking more of the cats than of quenching the burning; but the cats slip through or leap over the men and spring into the fire. When this happens, there is great mourning in Egypt. Dwellers in a house where a cat has died a natural death shave their eyebrows and no more; where a dog has so died, the head and the whole body are shaven” (Herodotus 2.66-2.67).

“Dead cats are taken away into sacred buildings, where they are embalmed and buried, in the town of Bubastis; bitches are buried in sacred coffins by the townsmen, in their several towns; and the like is done with ichneumons. Shrewmice and hawks are taken away to Buto, ibises to the city of Hermes. There are but few bears, and the wolves are little bigger than foxes; both these are buried wherever they are found lying” (Herodotus 2.67).

Mother Cat and Kittens on a faience ring from Egypt, ca. 1295–664 BCE. Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The relationship of the Ancient Greeks (as of today’s Greeks) to the Cat was ambivalent at best. They were hated and loved. Aristophanes, the ancient Greek comedy playwright, often featured Cats which the characters jokingly blamed for everything. It was not until the ancient Romans (much like today’s Romans) that the Cat’s position was again elevated, not to quite the same level as in ancient Egypt, but as pets and useful mousers.

There are several ancient descriptions of animals being enticed by ancient music. The story of the legendary poet and prophet from Thrace (today bordering Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey), Orpheus, and the many wild animals that came to listen to him playing the lyre (made from Turtles’ shells) was popular already in antiquity.

“Orpheus Taming Wild Animals.” Mosaic. Eastern Roman Empire, near Edessa. 194 CE. Dallas Museum of Art.

On a Boeotian toy oinochoe a boy plays the lyre for the amusement of his Cat that sits on a small stool and listens attentively. Antikensammlung, Berlin. 

More recent Cat lovers

Other purported Cat lovers include Islam’s founder Mohammed who supposedly cut off his sleeve on which a Cat was sleeping rather than disturbing it when called to prayer, Queen Victoria whose Persian Cats were members of her court, and the former Pope Benedict XVI who allegedly feeds stray Cats around his house at the Vatican. Pope Benedict’s successor Pope Francis on the other hand, notwithstanding that he took his papal name from Saint Francis who believed that all animal species, Human and non-Human, were equal and all God’s creatures, expressed his objection to women who care for Cats and Dogs instead of having Human children, a rather false dichotomy since one does not prevent the other, and not unlike Greek church father Clement of Alexandria’s (ca. 150-215 CE) rebuke of pet keeping instead of caring for poor people which, according to him, were incompatible concerns.  The street Cat (and Dog) in contemporary Greece and the area which in antiquity was known as Magna Graecia (southern Italy and Sicily), because of its many Greek colonies, still does not fare well to this day. Many people view Cats as vermin and put out poison to kill them. Unfortunately, the Cat did not do well during the European Middle Ages either. The Cat, especially the black Cat, was considered demonic and was killed along with the people, mostly older women labeled witches, who cared for them. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) issued a papal bull condemning the Cat as evil which prompted the mass killing of them all over Europe. Not unlike the often ill-informed current pronouncements against Rats, Pigeons, and Cockroaches, the Cat’s teeth were considered venomous, its flesh poisonous, and its hair lethal causing suffocation if even a few hairs were to be accidentally swallowed. Today’s Roman gattara (“street cat lady”), however, carries the witch label with pride.

Other Companion Animals

Snakes

As a drinking and living companion he [Ajax] had a tame snake that was five cubits long, which led the way when he traveled and otherwise followed him like a dog” (Philostratus, Heroicus 31.3).

Hares/Rabbits

Roman politician and writer Julius Caesar (100-March 15, 44 BCE) tells us that the Britanni (ancestors of the English) did not eat Hare, Goose, or Chicken and instead raised these animals for pleasure.

They account it wrong to eat hare, fowl, and goose; but these they keep for pastime or pleasure” (Caesar, Gallic Wars 5.2).

A boy, wearing a band of amulets around his body, holds out his arms to a Hare which is standing on its hind legs to greet its guardian. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.

Fishes [sic]

Fishes as pets are described by Aelian:

It seems that even Fishes are both tame and tractable, and when summoned can hear and are ready to accept food that is given them, like the sacred eel in the Fountain of Arethusa. And men tell of the moray belonging to Crassus the Roman, which had been adorned with earrings and small necklaces set with jewels, just like some lovely maiden; and when Crassus called it, it would recognize his voice and come swimming up, and whatever he offered it, it would eagerly and promptly take and eat. Now when this fish died Crassus, so I am told, actually mourned for it and buried it. And on one occasion when Domitius said to him ‘You fool, mourning for a dead moray!’ Crassus took him up with these words: ‘I mourned for a moray, but you never mourned for the three wives you buried” (Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 8.4[i]).

Tame fishes which answer to a call and gladly fish of various lands accept food are to be found and are kept in many places, in Epirus for instance, at the town, formerly called Stephanepolis, in the temple of Fortune in the cisterns on either side of the ascent; at Helorus too in Sicily which was once a Syracusan fortress; and at the shrine of Zeus of Labranda in a spring of transparent water. And there fish have golden necklaces and earrings also of gold…And in Chios in what is called ‘The Old Men’s Harbor’ there are multitudes of tame fish, which the inhabitants of Chios keep to solace the declining years of the very aged” (Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 12.30).

Pigeons

 

This Greek life-size Hellenistic marble statue features a young girl holding her pet Pigeon far away from her pet Snake to protect it. The sculptor makes it clear that the girl just discovered her pet Snake’s intentions. Capitoline Museums, Rome.

 

A famous Greek marble stele at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York features a girl kissing her pet Pigeon, ca. 450-440 BCE.

Sparrows

The Roman poet Catullus’s (ca. 84-54 BCE) poems about the heroine Lesbia’s Sparrow and its death are some of the most admired from classical antiquity (poems 2 and 3):

Sparrow, my lady’s pet, with whom she often plays whilst she holds you in her lap, or gives you her fingertip to peck and provokes you to bite sharply, whenever she, the bright-shining lady of my love, has a mind for some sweet pretty play, in hope, as I think, that when the sharper smart of love abates, she may find some small relief from her pain—ah, might I but play with you as she does, and lighten the gloomy cares of my heart! This is as welcome to me as to the swift maiden was (they say) the golden apple, which loosed her girdle too long tied.”

“Mourn, ye Graces and Loves, and all you whom the Graces love. My lady’s sparrow is dead, the sparrow my lady’s pet, whom she loved more than her very eyes; for honey-sweet he was, and knew his mistress as well as a girl knows her own mother. Nor would he stir from her lap, but hopping now here, now there, would still chirp to his mistress alone. Now he goes along the dark road, thither whence they say no one returns. But curse upon you, cursed shades of Orcus, which devour all pretty things! Such a pretty sparrow you have taken away. Ah, cruel! Ah, poor little bird! All because of you my lady’s darling eyes are heavy and red with weeping.”

Ravens

Well-known is the story of the cobbler’s pet Raven, as recorded by Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE). This Raven greeted Roman Emperor Tiberius every morning, and became a public favorite. It was buried with much pomp and circumstance by the Roman populace.

When Tiberius was emperor, a young raven from a brood hatched on the top of the Temple of Castor and Pollux flew down to a cobbler’s shop in the vicinity, being also commended to the master of the establishment by religion. It soon picked up the habit of talking, and every morning used to fly off to the Platform that faces the forum and salute Tiberius and then Germanicus and Drusus Caesar by name, and next the Roman public passing by, afterwards returning to the shop; and it became remarkable by several citizens, in the city in which many leading men had had no obsequies at all, while the death of Scipio Aemilianus after he had destroyed Carthage and Numantia had not been avenged by a single person. The date of this was 28 March, a.d. 36, in the consulship of Marcus Servilius and Gaius Cestius years’ constant performance of this function. This bird the tenant of the next cobbler’s shop killed, whether because of his neighbor’s competition or in a sudden outburst of anger, as he tried to make out, because some dirt had fallen on his stock of shoes from its droppings; this caused such a disturbance among the public that the man was first driven out of the district and later actually made away with, and the bird’s funeral was celebrated with a vast crowd of followers, the draped bier being carried on the shoulders of two Ethiopians and in front of it going in procession a flute-player and all kinds of wreaths right to the pyre, which had been erected on the right hand side of the Appian Road at the second milestone on the ground called Rediculus’s Plain. So adequate a justification did the Roman nation consider a bird’s cleverness to be for a funeral procession and for the punishment of a Roman” (Pliny, Natural History 10.60).

Animals as Gifts in Courtship

Animals such as Hares and Rabbits, Fawns, Doves, Dogs, Roosters were given in courtship as often depicted in Greek art whether the couples were mythological creatures or real, whether of the same or opposite sex.

Attic red-figure skyphos (wine cup), ca. 460-450 BCE. The Louvre Painter. Antikensammlung, Berlin.

Attic red-figure pelike (liquid container), ca 450-400 BCE. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.

Same sex love in antiquity was (and still is) not just a thing among Human animals.

Wild Animals

Foxes

Foxes were wild and often considered a nuisance for wine growers because they liked eating the vines. Chickens were not kept as often in antiquity as now, so we do not hear much about Foxes killing Chickens.

Greek biographer and essayist Plutarch (ca. 46-120 CE) tells of a Spartan boy who stole a young Fox and concealed it under his garments. The Fox bit the boy who, out of fear of being discovered, quietly endured the pain and died:

The boys make such a serious matter of their stealing, that one of them, as the story goes, who was carrying concealed under his cloak a young fox which he had stolen, suffered the animal to tear out his bowels with its teeth and claws, and died rather than have his theft detected” (Plutarch, Lycurgus 18.51).

Children in Sparta, during rites of passage ceremonies, fasted almost to the point of starvation and were supposed to steal to fill their bellies. It is probably no coincidence that during this phase of the ceremonies at the Artemis Orthia sanctuary in Sparta, the children were referred to as Foxes. At other Greek temples dedicated to Artemis girls (possibly boys, too) in rites of passage rituals were called Bears and Fawns, and the priestesses in the Artemis Temple at Ephesus Bees and the priests Drones. Artemis was the Greek goddess of animals, especially wild, and of all of nature.

Terracotta figurine of a Fox scratching its head. Tanagra, Greece, ca. 5th century BCE. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Rats and Mice

Rats and mice were considered pests also in antiquity and were even eaten; however, as with everything in antiquity related to animals, there were contradictions. Mice were also worshiped as the sacred animal of the god Apollo Smintheus, the Mouse-God; his cult statues showed him with a mouse and a mouse is also featured on the coins of the town of Hamaxitus in the Troad in modern Turkey where Apollo Smintheus’s main temple was situated.

Greek historian and geographer Strabo (ca. 64/63 BCE-24 CE) on the temple of Apollo the Mouse-God:

In this Chrysa is also the temple of Sminthian the symbol which preserves the etymology of the name, Ι mean the mouse, lies beneath the foot of his image. These are the works of Scopas of Paros; and also the history, or myth, about the mice is associated with this place: When the Teucrians arrived from Crete (Callinus the elegiac poet was the first to hand down an account of these people, and many have followed him), they had an oracle which bade them to “stay on the spot where the earth-born should attack them”; and, he says, the attack took place round Hamaxitus, for by night a great multitude of field-mice swarmed out of the ground and ate up all the leather in their arms and equipment; and the Teucrians remained there; and it was they who gave its name to Mt, Ida, naming it after the mountain in Crete. Heracleides of Pontus says that the mice which swarmed round the temple were regarded as sacred, and that for this reason the image was designed with its foot upon the mouse” (Strabo, Geography 13.1.48).

Mice lived and were fed at public expense in Apollo Smintheus’s temples. Herodotus tells a story in which the Pharaoh Sethos was saved from an Assyrian invading army when a group of Mice ate their shield-handles, bowstrings, and quivers overnight (Herodotus 2.141).

According to Pliny the white Mouse was a good omen in Rome:

The Public Records relate that during the siege of Casilinum by Hannibal a mouse was sold for 200 francs, and that the man who sold it died of hunger while the buyer lived. The appearance of white mice constitutes a joyful omen” (Pliny, Natural History 8.222-8.223).

Bronze figurine of a Mouse dedicated to Apollo Smintheus (the Mouse God). (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin) Antikensammlung, Berlin.

The Rat is worshiped in today’s India where thousands of Rats live and are fed in the Temple of Karni Mata at Deshnoke in Rajasthan. Sacred Rats and Mice have also been found in tombs of women from Neolithic Çatal Höyük in present-day Turkey to female warrior graves in Southern Russia.

Deer

Deer were hunted then as now for “sport” or rather for “tests of manhood.”  However, just like in the Harry Potter book series, the gentle deer were also sacred; in antiquity as the special companions of the goddess Artemis/Diana, but also as gods in their own right among the Celts and other ancient peoples.

Artemis and a Stag. Roman copy of a sculpture by Greek artist Leochares from ca. 325 BCE. Louvre.

 

Artemis’/Diana’s Deer on a Roman billon Antoninianus, from the reign of Emperor Gallienus, ca. 267/268 CE.  DIANAE CONSERVATORI AVGVSTI (to Diana (Artemis), the Preserver of the Emperor). Photo by Mike Braunlin.

A Scythian fibula (brooch) in the shape of a Deer. Northern Caucasus. Made of gold, late 7th century BCE. Hermitage, Saint Petersburg.

 

Deer (the Doe), the “Patronus” of Harry Potter and Professor Snape.

The Pastime of Hunting

Of the story about Alcaeus, there are many versions. A children’s cartoon on American TV a couple of years ago featured the story of the goddess Artemis and the hunter Actaeon, loosely based on Ovid’s tale in the Metamorphoses. This version described how the Greek goddess Artemis transformed the hunter Actaeon into a Stag to teach him a lesson about not killing animals. The terrified Actaeon, now a Deer, attempts to speak but is not able to make himself understood without a human language. As his hunting companions are poised to throw their spears and shoot their arrows and the hunting Dogs are about to pounce at the “Deer” Actaeon, he promises Artemis that if she would only change him back into human form, he would never kill another living being and instead educate his hunting companions about the plight and suffering of hunted animals, which was indeed the happy outcome.

Artemis shooting at Actaeon with his own hunting Dogs attacking, seeing him as a Deer. Bell krater to mix water and wine by the so called Pan Painter, ca. 470 BCE. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Wild Boars, too, were hunted, especially among the Etruscans. However, hunting in classical Greece seems mostly to have been an activity among upper class young males for “sport” or “proof of manhood” rather than among farmers or workers for food, so the number of animals hunted in antiquity would have been smaller than today.

Etruscan perfume bottle in the figure of a Boar, ca. 600-500 BCE. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio.

On the Emotions of Animals

The profound sadness some animals feel at the loss of a friend was nicely captured by Aelian:

Now the Purple Coot, in addition to being extremely jealous, has, I believe, this peculiarity; they say that it is devoted to its own kin and loves the company of its mates. At any rate I have heard that a Purple Coot and a Cock were reared in the same house that they fed together, that they walked step for step, and that they dusted in the same spot. From these causes there sprang up a remarkable friendship between them. And one day on the occasion of a festival their master sacrificed the Cock and made a feast with his household. But the Purple Coot, deprived of its companion and unable to endure the loneliness, starved itself to death” (Aelian, On Animals 5.28).

A Cow mother’s intense love for her Calf was faithfully described by Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (ca. 99-55 BCE):

For often in front of the noble shrines of the gods a calf falls slain beside the incense-burning altars, breathing up a hot stream of blood from his breast; but the mother bereaved wanders through the green glens, and seeks on the ground the prints marked by the cloven hooves, as she surveys all the regions if she may espy somewhere her lost offspring, and coming to a stand fills the leafy woods with her moaning, and often revisits the stall, pierced with yearning for her calf; nor can tender willow-growths, and herbage growing rich in the dew, and those rivers flowing level with their banks, give delight to her mind and rebuff her sudden care, nor can the sight of other calves in the happy pastures divert her mind and lighten her load of care: so persistently she seeks for something of her own that she knows well” (Lucretius, De Rerum Natura 352-366).

On the Intelligence of Animals

Several ancient authors commented on the intelligence of various animal species.

For example, the intelligence of Cows and Baboons in Aelian’s On the Nature of Animals 7.1 and 6.10(i) and in Plutarch’s On the Intelligence of Animals 974d-e; the intelligence of the Mule in Plutarch (970a-b), Ants (967d-968b), Crows, Crocodiles, Elephants, Partridges, Deer, Fish such as Mullets, and Cranes, Tortoises, Dolphins, Horses.

Aelian on Baboons that dance and play instruments:

“Under the Ptolemies the Egyptians taught baboons their letters, how to dance, how to play the flute and the harp. And a baboon would demand money for these accomplishments, and would put what was given him into a bag which he carried attached to his person, just like professional beggars” (Aelian, On the Nature of Animals, 6.10[i]).

A figurine in the shape of a Baboon. Greece, ca. 6th-4th century BCE. UC Classics Library. On loan from the UC Art Collection. Could this figurine illustrate the passage in Aelian above about a baboon and its bag?  

Plutarch on the intelligence of Ants:

“A matter obvious to everyone is the consideration ants show when they meet: those that bear no load always give way to those who have one and let them pass. Obvious also is the manner in which they gnaw through and dismember things that are difficult to carry or to convey past an obstacle, in order that they may make easy loads for several” (Plutarch, On the Intelligence of Animals 967f)

“But what goes beyond any other conception of their intelligence is their anticipation of the germination of wheat. You know, of course, that wheat does not remain permanently dry and stable, but expands and lactifies in the process of germination. In order, then, to keep it from running to seed and losing its value as food, and to keep it permanently edible, the ants eat out the germ from which springs the new shoot of wheat” (968a).

Animals do not need mnemonic devises

Animals retain the memory of their experiences and have no need of those mnemonic systems devised by Simonides, by Hippias, and by Theodectes, or by any other of those who have been extolled for their profession and their skill in this matter. For instance, a cow goes to the spot where her calf was taken from her and mourns for it, lowing as is her wont” (Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 6.10[ii]).

Greco-Roman poet Oppian in treatises on fishing details the intelligence of Fish – Cuttle Fish, Prawn, Crab, Grey Mullet, Muraena, Bass, etc. (Oppian, Halieutica 2.120; 2.169; 3.92-188; 4.40-64).

Oppian (2nd century CE) on the intelligence of Fish:

Fish employ cunning wit and deceitful craft and often deceive even the wise fishermen themselves and escape from the might of hooks and from the belly of the trawl when already caught in them and outrun the wits of men; outdoing them in craft, and become a grief to the fishermen” (Oppian, Halieutica 3.92-98).

Roman naturalist author Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE) on the intelligence of Elephants:

The elephant is the largest of them all, and in intelligence approaches the nearest to man. It understands the language of its country, it obeys commands, and it remembers all the duties which it has been taught. It is sensible alike of the pleasures of love and glory, and, to a degree that is rare among men even, possesses notions of honesty, prudence, and equity; it has a religious respect also for the stars, and a veneration for the sun and the moon” (Pliny, Natural History 8.1.).

Cruelty towards Animals in Antiquity

The use and exploitation of animals and Human cruelty and deception towards them are poignantly recounted in this ancient Egyptian allegory on a Demotic papyrus in Leiden:

…One day it happened that he [a lion] met a panther whose fur was stripped, whose skin was torn, who was half dead and half alive [because of his] wounds. The lion said: How did you get into this condition? … The panther said: “It was man.” The lion said to him: Man, what is that?” The panther said: “There is no one more cunning than man. May you not fall into the hands of man!” The lion became enraged against man. He ran away from the panther in order to search for [man]. The lion encountered a team yoked […] […] so that one bit was in the mouth of the horse, the other bit [in the] mouth of the donkey. The lion said to them: “Who is he who has done this to you?” They said: “It is man, our master.” He said to them: “Is man mightier than you?” They said: …There is no one more cunning than man. May you not fall into the hand of man” The lion became enraged against man. He ran away from them.”

“The same happened to him with an ox and a cow, whose horns were clipped, whose noses were pierced, and whose heads were roped. He questioned them. They said the same. The same thing happened with a bear whose claws had been removed and whose teeth had been pulled. He asked them, saying: “Is man stronger than you?” He said: “That is the truth. I had a servant who prepared my food. He said to me: “Truly, your claws stick out from your flesh; you cannot pick up food with them. Your teeth protrude; they do not let food reach your mouth. Release me and I will cause you to pick up twice as much food!” When I released him, he removed my claws and my teeth. I have no food or strength without them! He strewed sand in my eyes and ran away from me. The lion became enraged against man. He ran away from the bear in order to search for man.”

“He met a lion who was [tied to] a tree of the desert, the trunk being closed over his paw and he was very distressed because he could not run away. The lion said to him: “How did you get into this evil condition? Who is he who did this to you?” The lion said to him: “It is man. Beware, do not trust him! Man is bad. Do not fall into the hand of man!” I had said to him: “What work do you do?” He said to me: “My work is giving old age. I can make for you an amulet, so that you will never die.” I went with him. He came to this tree of the mountain, sawed it, and said to me:  “Stretch out your paw.” I put my paw between the trunk; he shut its mouth on it. When he had ascertained that my paw was fastened, so that I could not run after him, he strewed sand into my eyes and ran away from me. Then the lion laughed and said: “Man if you should fall into my hand, I shall give you the pain that you inflicted on my companion on the mountain!” (I 384).

Conclusion

In ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt many animals were sacred and well-treated. In Greece and Rome, too, animals could be sacred to gods and goddesses and pets, especially dogs, could receive their own burials with tombstones honoring them. And even though animals were eaten, plant protein was still the staple and there were no factory farms as today with more than 56 billion animals slaughtered each year and even though there were the occasional individual such as Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BCE) and, later in antiquity, physicians such as Greek Galen (129–ca. 210 CE) who performed dissections to study animal physiognomy, it cannot compare to the more than 100 million animals currently being killed throughout the world each year in today’s laboratories.  And with a much smaller Human population, habitat loss was minimal compared to today and man-made climate change was not yet an issue. The greatest challenges non-Human animals faced in antiquity were animal sacrifice and the imperial Roman penchant for staging wild animal “fights” in the arena. As difficult as life for many animals was in antiquity, several of the ancient narratives and pleas on behalf of animals reveal a passion for animals and animal welfare, even animal rights sentiments, among some ancient individuals, echoed by contemporary animal rights advocates.

The Clifton Deer Project in Cincinnati is the successful initiative of University of Cincinnati Professor Christine Lottman to demonstrate that there are effective non-lethal methods to curb populations although since Deer has formed part of the Earth’s fauna for 3 million years without causing overpopulation, including in classical antiquity, the reason for the contemporary Deer “problem” might perhaps rather lie in the population explosion of the Human animal (7 billion and counting) and the Human-made deforestation and climate change of the last few decades?  https://cliftondeer.org/

The famous “Il Porcellino,” a Baroque bronze fountain now in the Bardini museum in Florence, has become a symbol of the city (also making frequent appearances at Hogwarts in Harry Potter movies). The bronze sculpture harkens back to the ancestors of today’s Tuscans, the Etruscans and their Chimaera and She-Wolf. Hunting, especially of Wild Boar, as once among the Etruscans, is still a favorite pastime among some Tuscans. A couple of years ago, a law was passed to allow hunting in all corners of Tuscany, at all hours and all days of the year because the Boar, as the Fox in antiquity, is being blamed for destroying Tuscan vineyards. A majority of today’s Italians oppose hunting and there are organizations that actively fight against this law, using research and factual information to combat the erroneous perception of a “Wild Boar problem.” One of the smallest but most effective anti-hunting organizations in Florence is “Gabbie Vuote” (Empty Cages), named after a book by American philosopher Tom Regan. It uses as its motto a sentence in Latin from a controversial sermon (only a century after Descartes’ denial of any agency, intelligence, pain, or anxiety of animals) by English clergy and biographer James Granger (1723-1776): “Saevitia in bruta est tirocinium crudelitatis in homines” (savagery against animals is schooling for cruelty towards human beings). https://www.gabbievuote.it/caccia-al-cinghiale—relazione.html and https://www.gabbievuote.it/gli-animali-in-italia.htm

The Torre Argentina and the Cestius Pyramid Cat sanctuaries in present-day Rome to help abandoned Cats are situated at ancient Roman sites. Largo Argentina houses, besides the Cat sanctuary, four Roman Republic era temples (4th-2nd century BCE) and is the place where Julius Caesar was murdered in 44 BCE, at the Curia of the Theater of Pompeii. http://www.romancats.com/torreargentina/en/introduction.php

The Cestius Pyramid in Rome was a tomb built ca. 12 BCE. The caretakers of the Cestius pyramid Cats are archaeologists with the Superintendency of Roman antiquities.  http://www.romancats.com/igattidellapiramide/index.php

 

Crete, once the domain of the so called Minoans, is now the home of a sanctuary for abused and abandoned Donkeys. The Donkey has been used for centuries by Humans for meat and as pack animals in Greece and elsewhere. This is a small but incredibly important refuge that offers Donkeys a chance at a better life. http://www.agia-marina-donkeyrescue.com/

World-renowned University of Cincinnati classical archaeologist Professor Jack Davis and his feline colleague Nestor excavating “the Palace of Nestor” (probably not named after the Cat, but rather after the legendary King of Pylos) on the Greek Peloponnese. The archaeological campaign is ongoing and has thus far revolutionized our understanding of the Aegean and Greek Bronze Age, beginning with the excavations by UC Professor Carl Blegen in 1939, resumed 1952-1966, and his discovery of some 2,000 clay tablets with Linear B script, facilitating the decipherment of the early Greek documentary texts which revealed a complex economic system in Bronze Age Greece dependent on Oxen, Cows, Goats, and Sheep for wool production and farming, all in the service of religion.

Cat-archaeologist Nestor Davis finds the perfect spot for a well-deserved break from the exhausting trench work, unearthing many important artifacts.

If you wish to learn more about Animals in Antiquity, visit the UC Classics Library in the Blegen Library building where the books and some of the artifacts featuring the texts and images in this exhibition are housed. A much abbreviated poster version of this virtual exhibition is featured in the fifth floor vestibule of the Walter C. Langsam Library.

      

Select Bibliography

Chiens et chats dans la préhistoire et l’antiquité. Claire Bellier, Laureline Cattelain & Pierre Cattelain, eds. Treignes: Éditions du Cedarc, 2015.

Collins, Billie Jean. A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2002.

De l’aigle à la louve: Monnaies et gemmes antiques entre art, propagande et affirmation de soi. Matteo Campagnolo & Carlo-Maria Fallani, eds. Geneva: Musée d’art et d’histoire de Genève, 2018.

Ferris, Iain. Cave Canem: Animals and Roman Society. Gloucestershire: Amberley, 2018.

Harden, Alastair. Animals in the Classical World: Ethical Perspectives from Greek and Roman Texts. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Kitchell, Jr., Kenneth F. Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014.

Llewellyn-Jones, Lloyd. The Culture of Animals in Antiquity: A Sourcebook with Commentaries. Milton Park, Abingdon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2017.

Mazzoni, Cristina. She-Wolf: The Story of a Roman Icon. Cambridge [England]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Mynott, Jeremy. Birds in the Ancient World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Newmyer, Stephen T. Animals in Greek and Roman Thought: A Sourcebook.  London; New York: Routledge, 2011.

Sagiv, Idit. Representations of Animals on Greek and Roman Engraved Gems: Meanings and Interpretations. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2018.

Smith, Steven D. Man and Animal in Severan Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

 

Greeks and Romans — Beware of Ides of March – καὶ σὺ τέκνον!

Today is the day of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, precipitating the death of the Republic. Below are some passages from Plutarch, Suetonius, and Shakespeare speaking of the Ides of March as well as of the assassination itself, an image and description of the most famous of Roman coins, that of a bust of one of the principal assassins, Marcus Brutus, followed by a brief bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

The Curia building by the Theater of Pompey on the present day Largo Argentina in Rome, the place of Julius Caesar’s assassination. Supposedly, the place will undergo renovations and be opened to the public in a couple of years (although there have been many earlier reports to this effect), which is causing concern among the city of Rome’s many cat lovers since the spot is currently inhabited by felines who have lived there, probably ever since the murder of Caesar. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/site-where-julius-caesar-was-stabbed-will-finally-open-public-180971613/?utm_source=smithsoniandaily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=20190305-daily-responsive&spMailingID=39059296&spUserID=ODM4Njc3MTA5NjUS1&spJobID=1480462980&spReportId=MTQ4MDQ2Mjk4MAS2&fbclid=IwAR1llLQDzEH15xKhUGIe-PB25s67afhUOjMnjG6ageSAL0Hjg5hYbO9NoSU  

Plutarch

“…ὥς τις αὐτῷ μάντις ἡμέρᾳ Μαρτίου μηνός, ἣν Εἰδοὺς Ῥωμαῖοι καλοῦσι, προείποι μέγαν φυλάττεσθαι κίνδυνον· ἐλθούσης δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας προϊὼν ὁ Καῖσαρ εἰς τὴν σύγκλητον ἀσπασάμενος προσπαίξειε τῷ μάντει φάμενος· “Αἱ μὲν δὴ Μάρτιαι Εἰδοὶ πάρεισιν,” ὁ δὲ ἡσυχῆ πρὸς αὐτὸν εἴποι· “Ναὶ πάρεισιν, ἀλλ᾿οὐ παρεληλύθασι…” (Parallel Lives, Caesar 63.3-4). https://www.loebclassics.com/view/plutarch-lives_caesar/1919/pb_LCL099.443.xml?rskey=FylsHE&result=37

“A certain seer warned Caesar to be on his guard against a great peril on the day of the month of March which the Romans call the Ides; and when the day had come and Caesar was on his way to the senate-house, he greeted the seer with a jest and said: “Well, the Ides of March are come,” and the seer said to him softly: “Aye, they are come, but they are not gone.”

Shakespeare

Julius Caesar, Act I, Scene II:

http://shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar/julius_caesar.1.2.html

Soothsayer

Caesar!

CAESAR

Ha! who calls?

CASCA

Bid every noise be still: peace yet again!

CAESAR

Who is it in the press that calls on me?
I hear a tongue, shriller than all the music,
Cry ‘Caesar!’ Speak; Caesar is turn’d to hear.

Soothsayer

Beware the ides of March.

CAESAR

What man is that?

BRUTUS

A soothsayer bids you beware the ides of March.

CAESAR

Set him before me; let me see his face.

CASSIUS

Fellow, come from the throng; look upon Caesar.

CAESAR

What say’st thou to me now? speak once again.

Soothsayer

Beware the ides of March.

CAESAR

He is a dreamer; let us leave him: pass.

Suetonius

Assidentem conspirati specie officii circumsteterunt, ilicoque Cimber Tillius, qui primas partes susceperat, quasi aliquid rogaturus propius accessit renuentique et gestu in aliud tempus differenti ab utroque umero togam adprehendit; deinde clamantem: “Ista quidem vis est!” alter e Cascis aversum vulnerat paulum infra iugulum. Caesar Cascae brachium arreptum graphio traiecit conatusque prosilire alio vulnere tardatus est; utque animad­vertit undique se strictis pugionibus peti, toga caput obvolvit, simul sinistra manu sinum ad ima crura deduxit, quo honestius caderet etiam inferiore corporis parte velata. Atque ita tribus et viginti plagis confossus est uno modo ad primum ictum gemitu sine voce edito, etsi tradiderunt quidam Marco Bruto irruenti dixisse: καὶ σὺ τέκνον; Exanimis diffugientibus cunctis aliquamdiu iacuit, donec lecticae impositum, dependente brachio, tres servoli domum rettulerunt. Nec in tot vulneribus, ut Antistius medicus existimabat, letale ullum repertum est, nisi quod secundo loco in pectore acceperat” (De Vita Caesarum, The Deified Julius 82.1-4).https://www.loebclassics.com/view/suetonius-lives_caesars_book_i_deified_julius/1914/pb_LCL031.37.xml?rskey=IIrllU&result=1

“As he took his seat, the conspirators gathered about him as if to pay their respects, and straightway Tillius Cimber, who had assumed the lead, came nearer as though to ask something; and when Caesar with a gesture put him off to another time, Cimber caught his toga by both shoulders; then as Caesar cried, “Why, this is violence!” one of the Cascas stabbed him from one side just below the throat. Caesar caught Casca’s arm and ran it through with his stylus, but as he tried to leap to his feet, he was stopped by another wound. When he saw that he was beset on every side by drawn daggers, he muffled his head in his robe, and at the same time drew down its fold to his feet with his left hand, in order to fall more decently, with the lower part of his body also covered. And in this wise he was stabbed with three and twenty wounds, uttering not a word, but merely a groan at the first stroke, though some have written that when Marcus Brutus rushed at him, he said in Greek, “You too, my child?” All the conspirators made off, and he lay there lifeless for some time, until finally three common slaves put him on a litter and carried him home, with one arm hanging down. And of so many wounds none turned out to be mortal, in the opinion of the physician Antistius, except the second one in the breast.”

The Most Famous of all Roman Coins!

BRVT ∙ IMP ∙ PLAET ∙ CEST with Brutus head on the obverse and EID ∙ MAR with a pileus and two daggers on the reverse.

Late summer-autumn 42 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.59 g, 12h). Military mint traveling with Brutus and Cassius in western Asia Minor or northern Greece; L. Plaetorius Cestianus, magistrate. Bare head of Brutus right; BRVT above, IMP to right, L • PLAET • CEST around to left / Pileus between two daggers pointing downward; EID • MAR below. Crawford 508/3; Cahn 22 (same dies); CRI 216; Sydenham 1301; RSC 15; RBW –. Good VF, deeply toned, a little off center and minor porosity on obverse. Very rare. This extraordinary type is one of the few specific coin issues mentioned by any classical author, in this case, Dio Cassius. Roman History 47.25.3: “Brutus stamped upon the coins which were being minted his own likeness and a cap and two daggers, indicating by this and by the inscription that he and Cassius had liberated the fatherland.”

Brief Bibliography

  • Beware of Ides of March. But why? By Martin Stezano, Match 13, 2017. History Channel stories — https://www.history.com/news/beware-the-ides-of-march-but-why
  • Caesar. TNT presents a De Angelis Group and Five Mile River Films production; a film by Uli Edel; producers, Giuseppe Pedersoli, Jonas Bauer; written by Peter Pruce and Craig Warner; directed by Uli Edel. Featuring Jeremy Sisto, Richard Harris, Christopher Walken, Christopher Noth, Valeria Golino, Heino Ferch, Tobias Moretti. New York: Good Times Entertainment, 2004 — CLASS Reserves DG 261.C337 2004
  • Caesar Must Die. San Francisco: Kanopy Streaming, 2014 — https://uc.kanopystreaming.com/video/caesar-must-die
  • Dando-Collins, Stephen. The Ides: Caesar’s Murder and the War for Rome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010 — CLASS Stacks DG 267.D26 2010
  • Freeman, Philip. Julius Caesar. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008 — CLASS Stacks DG 261.F784 2008
  • Julius Caesar. Festival Films (1948). New York: Distributed by Films Media Group, 2016. Films on Demand — http://fod.infobase.com/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=115179
  • Julius Caesar. San Francisco: Kanopy Streaming, 2015 — https://uc.kanopystreaming.com/video/julius-caesar-0
  • Life and Death of Julius Caesar. Arden Shakespeare. MIT  —http://shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar/full.html (The Complete Works of William Shakespeare http://shakespeare.mit.edu/index.html)
  • Living History: Experiencing Great Events of the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: The Final Days of Julius Caesar. San Francisco: Kanopy Streaming, 2016 — https://uc.kanopystreaming.com/video/living-history-experiencing-great-events–10
  • Mackay, Christopher. The Breakdown of the Roman Republic: From Oligarchy to Empire. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009 — CLASS Stacks DG 254.M25 2009
  • Manfredi, Valerio Massimo. The Ides of March [fiction]. New York: Europa Editions, 2010 — Langsam PQ 4873.A4776 I3513 2010
  • Parenti, Michael. The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People’s History of Ancient Rome. New York: New Press, 2003 — CLASS Stacks DG 267.P37 2003
  • Plutarch. The Age of Caesar: Five Roman Lives. Translated by Pamela Mensch; edited, with preface and notes, by James Romm; introduction by Mary Beard. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2017 — CLASS Stacks DG 260.A1 P53 2017
  • “The Real Story behind the Assassination of Julius Caesar” by Larry Getlen, March 1, 2015. The New York Post — https://nypost.com/2015/03/01/the-real-story-behind-the-assassination-of-julius-caesar/
  • Strauss, Barry S. The Death of Caesar: The Story of History’s Most Famous Assassination. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2015 — CLASS Stacks DG 267.S77 2015
  • Suetonius. Lives of the Caesars. With an English translation by J.C. Rolfe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014 — https://www.loebclassics.com/view/LCL031/1914/volume.xml
  • Sumi, Geoffrey S. Ceremony and Power: Performing Politics in Rome between Republic and Empire. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005 — CLASS Stacks DG254.2.S86 2005
  • Tempest, Kathryn. Brutus: The Noble Conspirator. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017 —  CLASS Stacks DG 260.B83 T46 2017
  • The Tragedy of Julius Caesar. Open Source Shakespeare (see esp. lines 96-110) — https://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/views/plays/play_view.php?WorkID=juliuscaesar&Act=1&Scene=2&Scope=scene
  • What Are the Ides of March? March 12, 2014. History Channel stories — https://www.history.com/news/ask-history/what-are-the-ides-of-march
  • William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. BBC Play of the Month adaptation, originally broadcast on the 13th of April 1969. Featuring Robert Stephens as Mark Antony, Maurice Denham as Julius Caesar, Frank Finlay as Brutus and Edward Woodward as Cassius. YouTube — https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JInTNKLaEI4
  • Woolf, Greg. Et tu, Brute?: The Murder of Caesar and Political Assassination. London: Profile Books, 2006 — CLASS Stacks DG 267.W66 2006

Greeks and Romans — Happy Valentine!

Something to read and ponder on this most lovable day

The love of a man as passionately expressed by Roman poet Catullus (and to the delight of all school children studying Latin)

https://www.loebclassics.com/view/catullus-poems/1913/pb_LCL006.7.xml?result=1&rskey=Fz5uL7

“…da mi basia mille, deinde centum, dein mille altera, dein secunda centum, deinde usque altera mille, deinde centum dein, cum milia multa fecerimus, conturbabimus illa, ne sciamus, aut nequis malus invidere possit, cum tantum sciat esse basiorum…” (5)

“…give me a thousand kisses, then a hundred, then another thousand, then a second hundred, then yet another thousand, then a hundred. Then, when we have made up many thousands, we will confuse our counting, that we may not know the reckoning, nor any malicious person blight them with evil eye, when he knows that our kisses are so many…”

The love of a woman as expressed by the greatest of the Ancient Greek lyric poets, Sappho

https://www.loebclassics.com/view/sappho-fragments/1982/pb_LCL142.79.xml?mainRsKey=v1YYtJ&result=2&rskey=i9iJXE

“…ὠς γὰρ ἔς σ᾿ἴδω βρόχε᾿, ὤς με φώναισ᾿ οὐδ᾿ ἒν ἔτ᾿εἴκει, ἀλλὰ κὰμ μὲν γλῶσσᾴ <μ> ἔαγε, λέπτονδ᾿ αὔτικα χρῷ πῦρ ὐπαδεδρόμηκεν, ὀππάτεσσι δ᾿οὐδ᾿ ἒν ὄρημμ᾿, ἐπιρρόμβεισι δ᾿ἄκουαι, κὰδ δέ μ᾿ἴδρως κακχέεται, τρόμος δὲπαῖσαν ἄγρει, χλωροτέρα δὲποίας ἔμμι…” (frag. 31.7-14).

“…for when I look at you for a moment, then it is no longer possible for me to speak; my tongue has snapped, at once a subtle fire has stolen beneath my flesh, I see nothing with my eyes, my ears hum, sweat pours from me, a trembling seizes me all over, I am greener than grass…”

The touching love of a dog in Homer’s Odyssey

https://www.loebclassics.com/view/homer-odyssey/1919/pb_LCL105.175.xml?mainRsKey=TOKAcJ&result=1&rskey=vLoZ2S

“…ἂν δὲ κύων κεφαλήν τε καὶ οὔατα κείμενος ἔσχεν, Ἄργος, Ὀδυσσῆος ταλασίφρονος…  ἔνθα κύων κεῖτ᾿ Ἄργος, ἐνίπλειος κυνοραιστέων. δὴ τότε γ᾿, ὡς ἐνόησεν Ὀδυσσέα ἐγγὺς ἐόντα οὐρῇ μέν ῥ᾿ ὅ γ᾿ἔσηνε καὶ οὔατα κάββαλεν ἄμφω, ἆσσον δ᾿οὐκέτ᾿ ἔπειτα δυνήσατο οἷο ἄνακτοςἐλθέμεν…” (17. 290-291; 302-304).

“…and a dog that lay there raised his head and pricked up his ears, Argus, steadfast Odysseus’ dog… There lay the dog Argus, full of dog ticks. But now, when he became aware that Odysseus was near, he wagged his tail and dropped both ears, but nearer to his master he had no longer strength to move…”

The love of a cow for her newborn calf when he is brutally taken away to be sacrificed in Lucretius 

https://www.loebclassics.com/view/lucretius-de_rerum_natura/1924/pb_LCL181.123.xml?rskey=phideb&result=1

“…nam saepe ante deum vitulus delubra decora turicremas propter mactatus concidit aras, sanguinis expirans calidum de pectore flumen; at mater viridis saltus orbata peragrans quaerit humi pedibus vestigia pressa bisulcis, omnia convisens oculis loca si queat usquam conspicere amissum fetum, completque querellis frondiferum nemus adsistens et crebra revisit ad stabulum desiderio perfixa iuvenci; nec tenerae salices atque herbae rore vigentes fluminaque illa queunt summis labentia ripis oblectare animum subitamque avertere curam, nec vitulorum aliae species per pabula laeta derivare queunt animum curaque levare: usque adeo quiddam proprium notumque requirit…” (2.352-366).

“…for often in front of the noble shrines of the gods a calf falls slain beside the incense-burning altars, breathing up a hot stream of blood from his chest; but the mother, bereaved, wanders through the green glens, and knows the prints marked on the ground by the cloven hooves, as she surveys all the regions if she may espy somewhere her lost offspring, and coming to a stand fills the leafy woods with her moaning, and often revisits the stall pierced with yearning for her young calf; nor can tender willow-growths, and grass growing rich in the dew, and those rivers flowing level with their banks, give delight to her mind and rebuff that care which has entered there, nor can the sight of other calves in the happy pastures divert her mind and lighten her load of care: so persistently she seeks for something of her own that she knows well…”

The love of nature longingly expressed by Vergil in Eclogue 1

https://www.loebclassics.com/view/virgil-eclogues/1916/pb_LCL063.29.xml?mainRsKey=z6gF20&result=2&rskey=9aEESD

“…fortunate senex, hic inter flumina notaet fontis sacros frigus captabis opacum. hinc tibi, quae semper, vicino ab limite saepes Hyblaeis apibus florem depasta salicti saepe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro; hinc alta sub rupe canet frondator ad auras: nec tamen interea raucae, tua cura, palumbes, nec gemere aëria cessabit turtur ab ulmo” (Ecl. 1.51-58).

“…happy old man! Here, amid familiar streams and sacred springs, you shall enjoy the cooling shade. On this side, as of old, on your neighbor’s border, the hedge whose willow blossoms are sipped by Hybla’s bees shall often with its gentle hum soothe you to slumber; on that, under the towering rock, the woodman’s song shall fill the air; while still the cooing wood pigeons, your pets, and the turtle dove shall cease not their moaning from the elm tops.”

One of the many rather twisted love stories in Ovid’s Metamorphoses — Pyramus and Thisbe, Apollo and Daphne, Orpheus and Eurydice and countless others

https://www.loebclassics.com/view/ovid-metamorphoses/1916/pb_LCL042.3.xml?rskey=XVZ0kK&result=3 

That of Cupid (Eros) himself (and Psyche) in Apuleius 

https://www.loebclassics.com/view/apuleius-metamorphoses/1989/pb_LCL044.259.xml?result=2&rskey=4iNfhs

Happy Reading!

From the Sublime to the Ridiculous…

Dear Greeks and Romans,

As you know, we take very seriously our charge to manage “the Best Classics Library in the World” with outstanding book and journal collections and exceptional individual attention to each and every one of you (including sometimes working around bureaucracies that don’t always make sense). Maybe because we work so hard, we try to maintain a sense of humor, sometimes even sarcastic or macabre as our beloved Mike posing as νεκρς. This month we thought you might enjoy the comical gargantuan contrast between book sizes in our library and the many challenges that those sometimes bring for our library spaces and retrieval services, so we asked our “honorary librarian” Angelica to pick a tiny book (by no means the smallest book in our collection!) as December’s “Book of the Month” https://www.facebook.com/notes/uc-libraries/small-wonder-pickerings-terentii-comoediae-classics-library-book-of-the-month-de/2237384109628717/

Through the photos above and below we are comparing that mini book of the comedies of Roman playwright Terence with two of our more than a thousand giant books, one a facsimile of a medieval codex of Terence’s comedies and the other, a book on the topography and history of Olympia (by no means the largest books in our library!).

Now, we can all understand the usefulness of a very large sized book in order to better examine maps, diagrams, photographs, illuminations, scholia, etc., but what is the point of a miniature book other than its cuteness and curiosity, you might ask?  Well, especially, in the 19th century steam-powered presses mass-produced classical texts printed on inexpensive paper in small sized books to fit in shirt pockets or belt pouches for the consumption of an increasingly literate public. The railroad and steamboat aided their distribution. The small sized texts could also be conveniently perused by itinerant scholars and easily carried by traveling salesmen and studied by school children.

Smaller and more convenient book sizes in the 1800s sometimes aimed at counteracting and combating a waning emphasis on Greek and Latin in schools in Europe and the U.S. during this time, a “movement” eventually leading to such pocket sized books as a “predecessor” to the Teubner texts, also published in Leipzig. Even the volumes in the so called Loeb Classical Library series, although not miniatures, belong in this group since they were much smaller than a regular book in the 19th and early 20th century.  In a little known and, as far as I know, never again reproduced preface to the series appearing in a handful of the 1912 editions, James Loeb himself best explains the purpose of the LCL:

In an age when the Humanities are being neglected more perhaps than at any time since the Middle Ages, and when men’s minds are turning more than ever before to the practical and the material, it does not suffice to make pleas, however eloquent and convincing, for the safeguarding and further enjoyment of our greatest heritage from the past. Means must be found to place these treasures within the reach of all who care for the finer things of life.”

These words could just as well be written today when more and more schools and libraries cut funding for classics and eliminate Latin and Greek from their curricula and collecting priorities. Thumb drives could perhaps serve as the miniature books of the 21st century onto which the classical texts in the Perseus Digital Library or the PHI (though not the TLG) could be downloaded to reach a larger reading audience and attract more students. And with influential cultural icons such as J.K. Rowling and Mark Zuckerberg, who proudly profess their classics training, studying Greek and Latin is becoming cool again!

If you are interested in viewing the miniature book (with a magnifying glass!) and even touching it (!), please come to the Classics Library’s main Reading Room.

To read Angelica’s previous absolutely hilarious Facebook posts, see https://libraries.uc.edu/classics/about/book-of-the-month.html.

Happy Birthday Lucretius (and Virgil, too)!

Titus Lucretius Carus was presumably born on October 15 (99 BCE), i.e., today 1,919 years ago (Virgil, too, was supposedly, though somewhat unlikely, born on the same day, October 15, 70 BCE; however, he will have to wait for a blog until next year or in 2020)! So we wish to honor this amazing Roman poet and Epicurean philosopher. His only known work is De rerum natura, On the Nature of Things, but what a poetic work it is. Although it influenced later thinkers, it had an impact already on contemporary poets such as Vergil and Horace. Cicero, too, was a great admirer as witnessed in a letter to his brother Quintus (QFr. 2.9):

Lucreti poemata, ut scribis, ita sunt, multis luminibus ingeni, multae tamen artis.

“The poetry of Lucretius is, as you say in your letter, rich in brilliant genius, yet highly artistic.”

Ovid’s review of the DRN in his Amores (1.15.23–24) is famous:

“Carmina sublimis tunc sunt peritura Lucreti exitio terras cum dabit una dies.”

“The verses of the sublime Lucretius will perish only when a day will bring the end of the world.”

 

The didactic poem, written in some 7,400 dactylic hexameters, is divided into six books, and explores Epicurean thought through metaphors, alliteration, assonance, archaisms. It echoes Homer, Aeschylus, Euripides, Callimachus, even Thucydides and in epic diction and style, “the father” of Latin epic verse, Quintus Ennius.  The poem is full of contradictions — archaic form combined with modern thought, idyllic nature imagery with dystopia and misanthropy, anti-religious sentiments with elements of prophesy and salvation, and prosaic methodology with poetic sensibility.

In books I and II Lucretius presents the principles of atomism. Lucretius and Epicurean philosophy following Democritus atomic theory of the universe argue that nature consists of indivisible and unchanging elements, atoms, whose movements and combinations give rise to the perceived world. The movements of the atoms occur according to strict mechanical principles or laws without divine intervention. Anyone who has embraced this teaching no longer should fear omens or divine punishment, or death or hell, since they would know that even the soul consists of atoms and that it is dissolved along with the body upon death. Books I and II further polemicize against the pre-Socratic philosophers Heracleitus, Empedocles, and Anaxagoras and the rival Stoic school. For example, Lucretius argues against those who believed that fire was the Uhr element and rejects the notion of a pre-Socratic First element altogether (1.690-712 and 1.772-781).

“Quapropter qui materiem rerum esse putarunt ignem atque ex igni summam consistere posse, et qui principium gignundis aera rebus constituere, aut umorem quicumque putarunt fingere res ipsum per se, terramve creare omnia et in rerum naturas vertier omnis, magno opere a vero longe derrasse videntur. adde etiam qui conduplicant primordia rerum, aera iungentes igni terramque liquori, et qui quattuor ex rebus posse omnia rentur ex igni terra atque anima procrescere et imbri” (1.705-716).

“Therefore those who have thought that fire is the material of things and that the universe can consist of fire, and those who have laid down that air is the prime element for producing things, or whoever have thought that water molds things by itself, or that earth produces all things and changes itself into the natures of all thingsare seen to have gone far astray from the truth. Add, moreover, those who take the first-beginnings of things in couples, joining air to fire and earth to water, and those who think that all can grow forth out of four things, from fire, earth, air, and water.”

 

Book III explores the nature of the mind (animus) or central consciousness and the soul (anima) or sensation and explains that the soul is born and grows with the body, and that at death it dissipates like “smoke”; book IV discusses sensation and thought (sight, hearing, taste, smell, sleep and dreams) and V, for me the most interesting book, describes how the world came about and its inner workings as well as the evolution of life and human society. Lucretius delineates cultural and technological developments of humans such as the use of tools from prehistory to Lucretius’ own time. He theorizes that the earliest tools were hands, nails and teeth followed by stones, branches and fire. Copper and then bronze tools were used to till the soil until the bronze sickle was replaced by the iron plow. Lucretius suggests that the smelting of metal, and perhaps too the firing of pottery, was discovered by accident; for example, as a result of a forest fire. Before technology, Lucretius saw human life as lived “in the fashion of wild beasts roaming at large,” which, according to recent anthropological findings, is most likely a fairly accurate description of early humans (see, e.g., Donna Hart & Robert W. Sussman, Man the Hunted: Primates, Predators, and Human Evolution. New York: Westview Press, 2005).

“Necdum res igni scibant tractare neque uti pellibus et spoliis corpus vestire ferarum, sed nemora atque cavos montis silvasque colebant, et frutices inter condebant squalida membra verbera ventorum vitare imbrisque coacti” (5.953-957).

“Not yet did they know how to work things with fire, nor to use skins and to clothe themselves in the strippings of wild beasts; but they dwelt in the woods and forests and mountain caves, and hid their rough bodies in the underwoods when they had to escape the beating of wind and rain.”

 

Later rudimentary huts were built and the use and kindling of fire discovered along with the creation of clothing, language, family life, city-states, and the arts; the final book VI describes and explains various celestial and terrestrial phenomena (thunder, hail, ice, wind, earthquakes, agriculture). The poem ends with a description of the plague of Athens in 430 BCE, although since the poem is unfinished we cannot be certain that it was intended to end this way even though it juxtaposes nicely with the birth of spring and Venus’ creation with which the poem opens.

Omnia denique sancta deum delubra replerat corporibus mors exanimis, onerataque passim cuncta cadaveribus caelestum templa manebant, hospitibus loca quae complerant aedituentes.nec iam religio divom nec numina magni pendebantur enim: praesens dolor exsuperabat. nec mos ille sepulturae remanebat in urbe, quo prius hic populus semper consuerat humari; perturbatus enim totus trepidabat, et unus quisque suum pro re et pro tempore maestus humabat. multaque res subita et paupertas horrida suasit; namque suos consanguineos aliena rogorum insuper extructa ingenti clamore locabant subdebantque faces, multo cum sanguine saepe rixantes potius quam corpora desererentur (6.1272-1286).

 “Moreover, death had filled all the sanctuaries of the gods with lifeless bodies, all the temples of the celestials everywhere remained burdened with corpses, all which places the sacristans had crowded with guests. For indeed now neither the worship of the gods nor their power was much regarded: the present grief was too great. Nor did that custom of sepulture remain in the city, with which this nation in the past had been always accustomed to be buried; for the whole nation was in trepidation and dismay, and each man in his sorrow buried his own dead as time and circumstances allowed. Sudden need also and poverty persuaded to many dreadful expedients: for they would lay their own kindred amidst loud lamentation upon piles of wood not their own, and would set light to the fire, often brawling with much shedding of blood rather than abandon the bodies.”

 

In spite of the Epicurean unorthodox view of divinity, De rerum natura as an epos follows the model of Homer and its imitators and begins with a  celebration of the divine, not the Muses as in Homer and Virgil, or Stoic Zeus/Jupiter as in Ennius and Seneca, but the goddess of love, Venus, the mother of Aeneas and Rome and the creative force behind all of nature’s things.

Aeneadum genetrix, hominum divomque voluptas, alma Venus, caeli subter labentia signaquae mare navigerum, quae terras frugiferentis concelebras, per te quoniam genus omne animantum concipitur visitque exortum lumina solis: te, dea, te fugiunt venti, te nubila caeli adventumque tuum, tibi suavis daedala tellus summittit flores, tibi rident aequora ponti placatumque nitet diffuso lumine caelum. nam simul ac species patefactast verna dieiet reserata viget genitabilis aura favoni, aeriae primum volucres te, diva, tuum que significant initum perculsae corda tua vi. inde ferae, pecudes persultant pabula laetaet rapidos tranant amnis: ita capta lepore” (1.1-15).

“Venerable Venus, Mother of Aeneas, pleasing to gods and humans, who beneath the smooth-moving heavenly signs fill with yourself the sea teaming with ships, the earth that bears the crops, since through you every kind of living thing is conceived and rising up looks on the light of the sun: from you, O goddess, from you the winds flee away, the clouds of heaven from you and your coming; for you the wonder-working earth puts forth sweet flowers, for you the wide stretches of ocean laugh, and heaven grown peaceful glows with outpouring light. For as soon as the vernal face of day appears, and the breeze of the teeming west wind blows fresh and free, first the birds of the air proclaim you, divine one, and your advent, pierced to the heart by your might. Next wild creatures and farm animals dance over the rich pastures and swim across rapid rivers: so greedily does each one follow you, held captive by your charm.”

 

In spite of his beautifully crafted recognition of nature and the goddess Venus,  Lucretius is frequently thought of as an atheist because he described the universe as operating according to physical principles, guided by fortuna, “chance” rather than by divine intervention. For Lucretius the exemplum he uses to illustrate the absence of divine intervention and the horrible affects religion and superstition can have on mortals is the sacrifice to the goddess Artemis of Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, to obtain favorable winds to allow the Greek fleet to sail against Troy (to read this passage, see an earlier blog celebrating Artemis’ birthday http://libapps.libraries.uc.edu/liblog/2018/04/may-6-birthday-of-the-goddess-artemis-happy-thargelia-and-apollos-birthday-too/).

 

St. Jerome in his Chronicon/Chronicle contends that Lucretius “was driven mad by a love potion, and when, during the intervals of his insanity, he had written a number of books, which were later emended by Cicero, he killed himself by his own hand in the 44th year of his life.” This piece of nugget appears only in St. Jerome. It seems unlikely that a man who appears to have felt disdain for passionate love would have forsaken his beliefs and imbibed an aphrodisiac. An interesting early theory by L.P. Wilkinson suggested that Lucretius may have been confused with Lucullus. who supposedly did die after taking a love potion (CR 63 (1949): 47-48). Furthermore, as an Epicure it is doubtful that he would have been inclined to commit suicide.  The Epicureans taught that in order to attain joy and pleasure and freedom from fear and bodily pain and tranquility of mind, moderation in desire of all things (romance, food, drink, emotions, etc.) was necessary as well as knowledge of the world, thoughts found already in Plato. Just like the many fantastic stories about Sappho’s alleged jump off of a cliff for a teenage boy, Phaon, were based on the works of comedy writers, Lucretius may also have been the butt of jokes if we are to attribute his death to love sickness.

 

In Book III (79-82) Lucretius refers to suicide:

intereunt partim statuarum et nominis ergo.et saepe usque adeo, mortis formidine, vitae percipit humanos odium lucisque videndae,ut sibi consciscant maerenti pectore letumobliti fontem curarum hunc esse timorem

“…some wear out their lives for the sake of a statue and a name. And often it goes so far, that for fear of death men are seized by hatred of life and of seeing the light, so that with sorrowing heart they devise their own death, forgetting that this fear is the fountain of their cares…”

 

In spite of the Epicurean belief in the dissipation of the atoms of the soul at death and in line with the many contradictions in the DRN, Lucretius seems at least on some level to have embraced the idea of reincarnation or at least recycling (there is no life without death):

haud igitur penitus pereunt quaecumque videntur,quando alid ex alio reficit natura, nec ullamrem gigni patitur nisi morte adiuta aliena” (1.262-264)

“…no visible object utterly passes away since nature makes up again one thing from another, and does not permit anything to be born unless aided by another’s death.”

 

Lucretius often applies common sense and keen observation in his discussions; for example,  when rejecting hybrid creatures claiming that a fire breathing Chimaera would have been an absurdity since her different parts — lion, goat, and serpent — would all have perished by fire (5.901-906).

 

Optimism and love of nature and of life itself and even of humanity are themes in Book I.

at nitidae surgunt fruges ramique virescunt arboribus, crescunt ipsae fetuque gravantur; hinc alitur porro nostrum genus atque ferarum” (1.352-354).

…the branches upon the trees grow green, the trees also grow and become heavy with fruit; hence comes nourishment again for our kind and for the wild beasts.”

However, all that changes by the time we get to Book V.

casas postquam ac pellis ignemque pararunt, et mulier coniuncta viro concessit in unum. . . . . . .cognita sunt, prolemque ex se videre creatam, tum genus humanum primum mollescere coepit” (5.1011-1015)

“When they had gotten themselves huts and skins and fire, and woman mated with man moved into one (home and marriage) became known … then first the human race began to grow soft”

 

Although Lucretius seems to have felt compassion towards animals (to read Lucretius moving story of a mother cow who is searching for her baby calf that has been taken away from her to be killed at the altar, see the previous blog “Happy Valentine’s Day” http://libapps.libraries.uc.edu/liblog/2018/03/greeks-and-romans-happy-valentine/) equating humans with animals, he also refers to ‘dumb animals” a kind of trope, I guess, although stupidity for Lucretius could be said to be a characteristic also of the human animal species. For women Lucretius expresses less appreciation in spite of the fact that he invokes Venus rather than Jupiter in claiming that

nam longe praestat in arte et sollertius est multo genus omne virile” (5.1356)

“men are far superior to women in skill and more clever”

in a passage in which Lucretius argues that weaving once used to be the prerogative of men until farmers began to tease them and subsequently the art of weaving was left to women, presumably to the detriment of the craft considering the alleged inferiority of the female sex.

In the following passage Lucretius expresses appreciation for a woman who although may not be physically attractive could still be bearable if she is obliging, neat and clean.

“nam facit ipsa suis interdum femina factis morigerisque modis et munde corpore culto, ut facile insuescat te secum degere vitam. quod superest, consuetudo concinnat amorem; nam leviter quamvis quod crebro tunditur ictu, vincitur in longo spatio tamen atque labascit” (4.1280-1285).

“For a woman sometimes so manages herself by her own conduct, by obliging manners and bodily neatness and cleanliness, that she easily accustoms you to live with her. Moreover, it is habit that breeds love; for that which is frequently struck by a blow, however light, still yields in the long run and is ready to fall.”

 

De rerum natura was studied by late antique grammarians such as Servius and Macrobius. Archbishop and scholar Isidore of Seville uses Lucretius passages in his Etymologiae and in his De rerum natura (named after Lucretius’ poem) to explain rerum naturam. However, Lucretius’ poem was seldom read in the Middle Ages, in part because of the perceived anti-religious position of Epicurean philosophy. Even though Lucretius’ poem was rediscovered and became influential during the humanist development of the Renaissance, cardinal Melchior de Polignac wrote as late as in 1747 a poem in Latin in nine books called Anti-Lucretius, sive de Deo et Natura which became very popular and was translated into several languages.

Nevertheless, two important manuscripts do survive from the ninth century, both owned by seventeenth-century Dutch classicist Isaac Vossius and purchased from his estate by the Leiden University Library in 1689. The formats of the two manuscripts have given them their modern designations; the “Oblongus” and the “Quadratus.” The earlier of the two, the Leiden Voss. Lat. Fol. 30, the Oblongus, the facsimile currently on display in the Circulation area of the Classics Library, has an ownership inscription dated 1479 from the cathedral library of St. Martin’s, Mainz. It is a manuscript of 192 leaves measuring c. 314 x 204 mm, with twenty lines per page, and copied in a large early Caroline miniscule. There are frequent contemporaneous corrections and emendations by a corrector, traditionally known as Saxonicus.  The corrector has since been identified with an Irish scholar, Dungal, at Charlemagne’s court. The scribe of the Oblongus took pains to produce a legible text which involved careful collaboration with the corrector of the manuscript.  The scribe left gaps at line ends for words which he was unable to decipher and omitted some lines, leaving space for Dungal to emend them.

 

In the early Renaissance De rerum natura was rediscovered in a Benedictine library at Fulda in Germany by Italian humanist scholar Poggio Bracciolini (for more on him see an earlier blog on the Fall of Constantinople https://libapps.libraries.uc.edu/liblog/2018/05/on-may-29-the-classics-library-remembers-the-fall-of-constantinople-and-the-byzantine-empire/). The text of the original manuscript, a copy of which is now housed in the Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence, influenced such divergent thinkers as Giordano Bruno, Thomas More, and Michel de Montaigne.

The teachings of Epicurus are still practiced by some. The following are the tenets of modern Epicureanism, at least according to a blog of something that curiously enough calls itself “the Church of Epicurus”:

1) Don’t fear God.
2) Don’t worry about death.
3) Don’t fear pain.
4) Live simply.
5) Pursue pleasure wisely.
6) Make friends and be a good friend.
7) Be honest in your business and private life.
8) Avoid fame and political ambition.

Sounds simple enough. Would Lucretius have approved? 

Select bibliography

Bailey, Cyril. De rervm natvra libri sex; edited with prolegomena, critical apparatus, translation, and commentary. 3 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1947. CLASS Stacks PA6482 .A2 1947

Gale, Monica, R., ed. 2007. Lucretius. Oxford Readings in Classical Studies. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. CLASS Reserves  PA6484 .L85 2007

Gillespie, Stuart, and Philip Hardie, eds. 2007. The Cambridge companion to Lucretius. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. CLASS Stacks PA6484 .C33 2007

Hardie, Philip. 2009. Lucretian receptions: History, the sublime, knowledge. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. CLASS Stacks  PA6029.P45 H37 2009

Sharrock, Alison. 2006. The philosopher and the mother cow: Towards a gendered reading of Lucretius’ De rerum natura. In Laughing with Medusa: Classical myth and feminist thought. Edited by V. Zajko and M. Leonard, 253–274. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. CLASS Stacks  PN56.M95 L38 2006

Warren, James, ed. 2009. The Cambridge Companion to Epicureanism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. CLASS Stacks  B512 .C35 2009

English translation

Lucretius (Titus Lucretius Carus). 2007. The nature of things. Translated by A. E. Stallings, with introduction by Richard Jenkyns. London: Penguin. CLASS Stacks PA6483.E5 S73 2007

Poem online

Loeb Classical Library (UC access only)

Perseus Digital Library  (Latin)

Perseus Digital Library  (English)